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Tuesday, August 3, 2010

ACONITUM [Acon]:

Copy rights of the content in this article are with the respectable Author.
- A.W. Cowperthwaite.

Synonym-Aconitum napellus. Natural order.-Ranunculaceae. Common

GENERAL ANALYSIS.
Acts predominantly upon the cerebro-spinal nervous system, producing an exalted activity in the arterial circulation, paralyzing the arterial capillaries, and, as a result, giving congestions and inflammation of various parts, especially of he brain, spinal cord, serious and mucous membranes, muscles and joints. According to Dr. Bartholow, Aconite affects the sensory nerves before the motor. it paralyzes first the end organs next the nerve trunks, and finally the centers of sensation in the in the cord. It also amperes the reflex function of the spinal cord; but this effect is secondary to the sensory paralysis. If causes an arrest of motility through its action on the motor centers of the cord, and subsequently on the nerve trunks. Applied directly to the heart, Aconite lessens the number and force of its beats, and finally arrests its action in the diastole. It also lowers the arterial pressure. It is, therefore, a direct cardiac poison, affecting all the structures of he heart, the ganglia nerves and muscular substance. Aconite also paralyzes the muscles of respiration, through its action upon the peripheral however, all these features of the physiological effects of Aconite of secondary important, as compare with its power to produce and remove congestions and inflammations of the various organs and tissues of the body, though it use in functional and organic cardiac diseases, and in affections of both the sensory and motor nerve centers, giving rise to neuralgic and paralytic states, has proved in to be of incalculable service in such conditions. Aconite also causes an increase of elimination by the skin and kidneys, the solids being excreted in proportion with the fluids. There is very little evidence that Aconite produces any organic changes, its power being wholly functional, through it is frequently useful in the course of organic diseases of the heart and other organs, for the removal or palliation of symptoms which may arise , and which indicate its employment. The leading expression of aconite is a feverish, nervous restlessness, or mental distress, which characterizes its entire action.
CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS.
Mind. Great timidity (Ars., Bell., Cinch., Ign., Phos.), especially after a fright; afraid in. the dark, fear of ghosts, etc. (Ars., Puls); raging delirium, especially t night. Delirium. Chattering childish nonsense (Hyos);thinks the is dying, with restless jerking and jumping about (Ars.). Fear of approaching death (Agn., Ars., Cimic., Nitr. ac., Sec.) predicts the day of death (Apis). Inconsolable anxiety piteous wailings (Verat. alb.) vexation about trifles (Nitr. ac., Nux v.) Excessive restlessness, agonized tossing about (AEth., Ars., Camps., Natr., Ars., Rhus.). Variable humor, alternate attacks of gayety and dejection (Ign., Nux m., Phos., Plat)(. Dullness and confusion of mind; weakness of memory. Ailments from fright (Gels., Op).; from vexation; from anger (Bry., Cham). Head. Vertigo with nausea and vanishing of sight. Vertigo when rising from a recumbent posture (Bry., Puls., Sulph.) Vertigo on stooping (Sulph); staggers especially to the right. Vertigo from congestion; from anger; from fright; from suddenly suppressed catamenia. Burning headache, as if the brain were agitated by boiling water. Fullness and heavy feeling, as if everything would push push of the forehead (Bry., Sulph.). Aching inverted, worse at night; better on motion and in the open air. Drawing pressing feeling in trigeminus, then shooting, wandering, intermittent, then constant pain, sometimes pressure. Sunstroke (Bell.., Glon.) especially rom sleeping in. the rays of the sun. Congestion; anxiety; face hot and red (Ferr.); or small and quick; worse towards evening. Sensation as if the hairs stood on end; scalp sensitive to the touch (Baryta carb.., Bell., cinch., natr. mur., Nitr. ac., Merc., Mez., Nux v., Sensitiveness o he scalp to cold air, especially a strong wind,. Eyes. Bloodshot. Dull, surrounded with blue rings. Distorted. Sensitive to the air. Pain anteriorly as if the eye would be pushed out when the lids were opened (Sang). Violent and acute inflammation, on the earlier stages (Bell.) . Intense burning, pressive, shooting pains, especially on moving the eyeballs. Conjunctivitis resulting from the irritation of foreign bodies in. the eyes;l from in growing eyelashes; from exposure to cold, dry winds. Sensitive to light, particularly sun light (Sulph); light dazzles the eyes (Bell). Pupils contracted. Vision dim or entirely lost. eyeballs feel enlarged, as if coming out of he tickets. Lids hard, red, swollen; feel tense, hot, dry, burning and sensitive to he air; sensation of sand in lower inner canthus. Ears. Great sensitiveness to every noise;l noise intolerable (Bell., Lyc), particularly music (Ambra, Phos. ac.) Ringing or roaring in ears (Bell., Cinch., Lyc.) External daring or roaring in ears (Bell., Cinch., Lyc.). External ear hot, red and swollen (Bell., Apis). Pain in the right ear Acon., aur., Bell., Colch., Hep. s., Lyc., Graph). Nose. Sense of smell very acute (Bell.), especially for unpleasant odors. Epistaxis (Bell., Bry.) bright red blood (Erig). Coryza with sneezing (Arg., Euphorb., Osm.). fever, thirst, restlessness. Dry feeling in posterior nares. Distressing pressive pain at root of nose (Kali bi., Merc., iod., Natr. ars., Plat.) Face. Anxious frightened expression. hippocratic. Face red and pale alternately, or one cheek red, the other pale (Cham); face bloated and red (Bell., Op). Sensation of face growing large or swelling. On rising the red face turns deadly pale (Verat. alb). Twitching tingling. Numbness. Involuntary closing of jaws with salivation. Trismus, in paroxysms. rigidity. Neuralgia of trigeminus left side (Spig); face red and hot; restlessness, anguish. and screaming. Mouth. Burning, tingling, and numbness of lips, mouth and tongue. Dryness of mouth (Ailanth., Ars., Bry., Hyos., Nux. v). Toothache from cold, or dry, cold winds, with throbbing on the side; cheeks red; congestion to head. Teeth sensitive to cold air (Spig.) Bitter taste in the mouth (Bry., Coloc., cinch., Nux v., Hep., x., Puls..). Tongue coated white, or thick yellow white (ant. crud., Bry., Merc. Nux v.). Tongue swollen. Burning vesicles on tip of tongue. Dry, rough reeling in middle of tongue. Copious flow of saliva (Cinch., Merc.iod., Nitr. ac.) Throat. Burning and numbness in throat (Caps.) Redness of soft palate and uvula (Bell.); burning; dryness; constriction. Fauces and pharynx dark-red (Bapt.), stinging and burning (Apis), swelling of tonsils. Stitches in back part of throat, causing frequent swallowing. Feeling of dryness, as if some thing had stuck in the throat (Alum., Hep. s., Nitr. ac.). Stomach. No appetite; loathing of food (Ant.crud., Arn., Ars.). Burning unquenchable thirst (Ars.,Bry., cinch., Merc., Natr. mur., Rhus tox.). Desire for beer Cocc., Sulph.), wine (Bry,., Cinch.), or brandy (Puls.) Gastric catarrh from drinking ice-water while overheated. Painful hiccough (Hyos., Nux v., Stram.). Vomiting of lumbrici (Sang); of bile (Arg., Podo); of green masses of mucus (Ant. tart., Ipec.); of what has been drunk (Ars., Phos.). Vomiting with anxiety, heat, thirst, profuse sweat, and increased micturition. Anxious pulsation in pit f stomach, with shooting pain. Pressure in pit of stomach as from a weight or stone (AEsc., Ars., Bry., Nux v., Puls.). Burning from stomach up through the oesophagus to the mouth (Ars.). Region of stomach sensitive to touch. Abdomen. Pressive pain as from a weight in hypochondria; constriction,or stitches in hepatic region hindering respiration. (Ars., Bry., Cinch., Kali carb). Abdomen swollen, burning hot and sensitive to the touch (Bell., cupr.). Meteorism (Phos. ac.), vomiting, inability to urinate. Burning and cutting in the intestines, worse from pressure or lying on the right side. Pain in the hepatic region hindering deep breathing (Bry., Iod.). Fullness and weight in hypochondria. Pain in hypogastricum as from a flatulent purgative. Stool. Watery (Ant,.crud., Ars., Cinch., Podo.), white, with red urine; like chopped herbs in summer complaint; ; black, fetid (As.), bloody, and slimy, scanty, loose, frequent, with tenesmus. Bleeding haemorrhoids (Ham., Nitr. ac.), burning and hat in haemorrhoidal vessels (Aesc., sulph.). Intolerable nightly tingling and itching at the anus, from seat worms (Ars., Cina, Graph.). Urinary Organs. Painful, anxious urging to urinate (Borax). Micturition painful, difficult, drop by drop; urine scanty, fiery, scalding-hot, red or dark-colored (apis., Ars., Bell., Canth.). Urine deposits blood. Burning in fossa navicularis (Petros). Retention or suppression of urine (Apis, Hyos., Stram.), with pressure in the bladder, or stitches in the region of the kidneys; retention from cold, especially in children, with crying and restlessness. Male Organs. Bruised pain in testicles (Arg., Arn). Testicles swollen and hard (Agnus, Aur., Con. mac.) Female Organs. Menses suppressed from fright (Lyc.) vexation; cold; especially in plethoric women. Active uterine haemorrhage (Erig., Ham., Sec., Ipec.); much excitability; giddy; cannot sit up; fear of death. Vagina dry, hot, and sensitive (Bell.) Suppressed lochia (cimic); skin not and dry; milk scanty; abdomen inflated and sensitive (Bell.). Ovaritis from suddenly checked menstrual flow (Cimic.). Impending abortion from fright or vexation. Respiratory Organs. Hoarseness (Bell., Caust., Kali b., Lob., Phos., Spong.), weak voice. Larynx sensitive to touch (Lach.) and to inspired air, as if denuded (Spong., Osm.). Laryngitis with inflammatory fever; also with suffocative spasms. Croup, awakening in. first sleep; agony, tossing about; dry short cough; after exposure to dry, cold winds (Hep. s., Spong.). Cough dry, hoarse, loud (spong.), spasmodic, rough; awakening with danger of suffocation (Lach.) dry, hard and ringing; from tickling in throat (Sang). Child grasps its throat every time it coughs (Iod) child grasps its throat every time it coughs (Iodi.) Expectoration of bright-red blood; of blood (sulph). Haemoptysis, the blood comes with an easy hawking, hemming or slight cough; anxiety, palpitation, w, quick pulse, stitches in chest (Bry., Kali carb., Phos.); from excitement, wine or exposure to dry,cold air. Cannot lie on the right side but only on the back (Merc.). Stitches in chest with cough (Bry., Kali carb., Merc., Phos.); on inspiration (Bry.). Lancinating pains through the chest, with dry heat, difficult breathing; often violent chill. Labored, anxious breathing; or quick and superficial; loud, stertorous, with open mouth. Agony; sits straight up; can hardly breathe; pulse thread-like (Ant. tart., Ars., Samb.); vomituritio; sweat with anxiety; swelling under short ribs; after scarlet fever. Oppression of the chest when moving fast or ascending (Amm. carb., Ars., Calc.), in heart disease (Cact.). Pressive weight and burning under the sternum. Heart and Pulse. Dreadful oppression and anxiety about the heart. Palpitation(Cact., Calc.), with great anxiety (Ars., Spig.), and restlessness; difficult breathing; confusion in head; flying heat in face; pressive pain in cardiac region. Feeling of fullness; pulse hard and strong; contracted stitches in heart; constriction of the chest; in pericarditis. Uncomplicated cardiac disease; especially with numbness in the left am (Rhus tox.); tingling in finger, and fainting. Pulse strong, full, hard (Hell., Verat. vir) in fever; small, intermitting, irregular, in asthma (Ars.); quick,hard, small, in peritonitis; contracted, full, powerful, over one hundred per minute; quicker than beat of heart imperceptible, like a thread, with anxiety. (Ars.) Neck and Back. Tearing in nape of neck. Painful stiff neck, worse on moving neck; pain extending down to right shoulder (Gels.). Bruised pain between the shoulders (Rhus tox). Drawing, tearing pain in the scapulae. Stiffness of the back (Rhus tox.). Numbness in small of back extending into the legs. Pain in back prevents taking deep inspiration. Upper Limbs. Drawing, tearing pain in shoulder joint, elbow joint, in forearm, wrists and fingers. (Bry., Rhod., Rhus tox., Puls). Numbness of the left arm, can scarcely move the hand. Formication in the arms, hands, and fingers (Rhus tox). ARms hang powerless, as if paralyzed by blows. Creeping in fingers especially in writing. Hands icy cold; cold sweat in palms. Palms hot. Blueness of nails. Lower Limbs. Drawing, tearing pains in all the joints, and in the thigh. (Bry., Rhus., tox., Puls.). Tired feeling in lower limbs during repose (Rhus tox). Legs almost powerless after sitting; numbness (Rhus tox). Legs almost powerless after sitting;l numbness (Rhus tox). Cramps in calves (Calc., Camph., Nux v., Sil., Sulph.). Unsteadiness of the knees. Coldness of the feet, particularly the toes. Generalities. Rheumatic inflammation of the joints; worse evening and night night; intense bright-red, shining swelling of the parts; sensitive feeling in the affected parts; pain intolerable; numbness and tingling in all pars. Great weariness and loss of strength (cinch). Faintness on attempting to sit up (Bry.). Very sensitive to the least drags of cold air (cocc., Nux m). Drawing, tearing pains here and there (Rhus. Puls.). Burning through all mucous membranes Bruised pains in in many parts. Body sensitive to touch; does not not wish to be touched or moved. Excessive restlessness and tossing about for several hours. (Ars.) Convulsions. Most symptoms accompanied by shivering and anxiety. Skin. Red, shining, hot, swelling violent pain (Bell., Bry.). Fine prickling as from needles here and there. Spots like flea-bites (Coni); itching unchanged by scratching. Rash of children miliary; also in measles and scarlet fever (Apis, Bell, Puls.). Sleep. Sleeplessness after night, with great restlessness and tossing about (Abies can,. anxious, vivid dreams, waking with a start (Ars., Bell., Hyos.). Nightmare. Fever. Chilliness on slight movement, or from being uncovered or touched. Goose-flesh. Shivering ascends from the feet to the chest. Chilliness towards evening, with thirst, hot head and face, red cheeks and out pressing headache (Bry.). shivering art night on lying down. Heat with thirst, hard, full, and frequent pulse; anxious;l impatient; unappeasable; beside himself;f; tossing about in agony. Profuse hot sweat during sleep; cold or sour agony. Profuse hot sweat during sleep; cold or sour sweat. Sweat after midnight, relieving all symptoms. Sweat on whichever cheek he lies. Bad effect from suppressed sweat. Aggravation. In the evening and night; when lying on the (left) side, or on the back; after getting in bed; when rising (Bry., Op., Dig., in close room; from tobacco smoke (Ign.). Amelioration. In the open air (Bry., Plat., Puls.); when sitting still (rheumatism);f rom wine; generally better while at rest, but during night in bed pains insupportable (Merc);l after sweat (Rhus). Conditions. Especially applicable to plethoric persons, or those leading sedentary lives; dark hair and eyes; persons with rigid fibre. Compare. Arn., Ars., Bell., Bell., Bry., Cact., Camph., Canth., cham., Cimic., Coff., Convalaria., Colch., Dig., Nux v., Puls., Spig., Sulph., Verat. Antidotes. Acetic ac., Paris, Sulph. To large doses; free vomiting by emetics; wine, vegetable acids, vinegar. abuse of Aconite calls for Sulph. Aconite Antidotes. Bell., Cham., Coff., Nux v., Sep., sulph., Verat., alb.
THERAPEUTICS.
Aconite is most often useful in those disease where the so- called antiphlogistic treatment-blood letting, etc. would be the common practice. In sthenic or purely inflammatory fever in the fist state, before localization, eruption or exudation has taken place (when the latter is about to occur or has just occurred, Bry., Gels; after it has occurred, Apis, Ars., Iod., Merc. Phos., Rhus, Sang., etc.). Aconite is never indicated unless there be present great anxiety and restlessness. If the patient is quiet and a-pathetic Aconite is not the remedy. If the patient is quiet and apathetic Aconite is not the remedy. (In such cases if there is strong arterial excitement, full hard pulse, Verat. vir.; less violence, soft pulse, Gels.). Aconite is also indicated in the chilly stage, before the febrile stage is developed, often inducing a critical sweat and aborting the attack. Aconite produces no alteration in the quality of the blood, therefore it is never indicted in fevers of a malarial or septic character. Aconite is especially useful in. the first or inflammatory state of respiratory diseases bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy and all respiratory catarrhs. It is the remedy for croup, either catarrhal or membranous, when the attack has been caused by exposure to dry,. cold north west winds, the arising from suppressing a profuse perspiration. Aconite is often indicated in. the first state of meningitis, not tubercle, but when arising from exposure to the sun's rays, or from fright or anger; peritonitis; metritis; cystitis; hepatitis; enteritis; glossitis; In rheumatism. In pericarditis, endocarditis and angina pectoris; also in uncomplicated hypertrophy of the heart with numbness of the left arm and tingling in the finers. In measles and miliary fever also in children's disease, with a hot dry fever, and great restlessness Useful in catarrhal conjunctivitis when resulting from exposure to dry cold winds, from surgical operations or from a foreign body in. the eye. Neuralgia resulting from exposure to dry cold winds, with numbness and tingling. Supra orbital neuralgia with burning pains.. also useful in paralysis where numbness and tingling are present. Convulsions caused by intense excitement,fright or anger. Aconite is very useful; in suppressed or painful menstruation resulting from fright or sudden exposure to cold. In pregnancy it calms the emotions, overcomes unnatural fears, and prevents abortion from fright excitement. Milk fever and suppressed lochia with characteristic symptoms. Orchitis. Aconite may also be used in many other diseased states as indicated in. the foregoing pathogenesis, a high temperature, full pulse and repeat anxiety and restlessness being h chief indications for its use in most instances.
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