Crotalus, Elaps, Lachesis, Lyssin, Malandrinum, Variolinum
Anacardium orientale, Blatta orientalis, Boletus satanus, Fel tauri, Vulpis hepar
$ Preparation of Homeopathic Mother Tinctures Modern Approach [Preparation of Mother Tinct Modern Approach]
SECTION- 5 HOMOEOPATHIC PHARMACEUTICS
In every instance, the dry crude substance is to be taken as the starting point from whence to calculate its strength, and with very few exceptions, the Homeopathic mother tinctures contain all the soluble matter of one grain of the dry plant in ten minims of the tincture. (HPUS)
As most tinctures are made from plants or their parts, their extraction deserves special attention. It is very important that tinctures should be of uniform strength. Old Hahnemannian methods involved preparation of tinctures of variable strengths. Preparations were based on the juice content of vegetable drugs. Accordingly four different formulae were devised for the preparation of the drugs. Variability of water contained in the same plant at different seasons and conditions of growth and protection and the variability of water in the solvents, especially alcohol, added to the variability of tinctures and of dilutions made from them. Hence a need to standardize the process of extraction of Homeopathic mother tinctures was necessary.
STANDARD UNIT OF MEDICINAL STRENGTH
While Hahnemann observed that plant moisture is a part of medicinal substance, the modern view is that the plant moisture constitutes merely as a vehicle or menstruum and forms no part of medicinal substance.
In accordance with the suggestion made by the Special Committee and adopted by the American Institute of Homoeopathy at Niagara Falls in 1888, the Pharmacopoeia Committee have prescribed the necessary rules to make the dilutions to correspond in medicinal strength (drug power) with triturations of the same number. This is in accordance with the intention of Hahnemann and also of that of the older authorities on homoeopathic pharmacy.
Hahnemann’s object was to formulate a rule according to which all alcoholic medicinal solutions (tinctures, extracts, etc.) and their dilutions might be made of uniform drug power to be represented by the dry crude drug as the unit of strength in the case of tinctures made from dry substances and by the plant juice as the unit when made from fresh green drugs.
To avoid the double standard made by Hahnemann and to secure uniformity in strength (drug power) of all preparations and attenuations, thereby making dilutions and triturations of equal degree correspond in medicinal strength, the Committee has, in all cases, made the dry crude drug, the unit from which to estimate strength. It should be understood, however, that the fresh green materials are still required in the preparation of tinctures and that the plant moisture is to be regarded as a part of the vehicle or menstruum; it being evident that the water contained in the plant is but a solvent and forms no part of its medicinal substance.
Adopting this rule in tincture making process, H.P.U.S. have followed B.H.P., thereby securing uniformity in strength – “In every instance, the dry crude substance is to be taken as the starting point from whence to calculate its strength, and with very few exceptions, the Preparation ofHomeopathic mother tinctures contain all the soluble matter of one grain of the dry plant in ten minims of the tincture”.
The Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (H.P.U.S.) has adopted the uniform one-tenth drug strength except in cases of few drugs. In order to obtain the uniform one-tenth drug strength of tinctures, H.P.U.S. has taken the dried drug as the unit to contain 1 gram of drug in 10 milliliters of tincture. In the preparation of Homeopathic mother tinctures made from fresh plants the plant moisture is taken into consideration when calculating for the one-tenth drug strength.
Moisture content of a plant is the amount of juice contained in a plant. Fresh succulent plants and other substances containing water should be treated according to the fundamental rule that the dry crude drug is taken as the starting point from whence to calculate the strength of the tincture. Hence, first take a suitable quantity of the fresh plant or part thereof and estimate the moisture content. Only the proportion of anhydrous drug is taken in calculation.
Hahnemann considered the moisture as a part of the active constituents of the plant and preparations were based on this consideration. But the strengths of the tinctures varied due to variability of moisture contained in the same plant at different times, seasons, and conditions of growth, procurement and storage.
DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT FOR VEGETABLE PRODUCTS
The moisture content of vegetable drugs can be estimated by the following methods.
* Gravimetric method – Loss on Drying (as per HPI)
Procedure set forth determines the amount of volatile matter (i.e. water drying off from the drug). For substances appearing to contain water as the only volatile constituent, this procedure is appropriately used.
Place about 10 g of drug (without preliminary drying) after accurately weighing (accurately weighed to within 0.01 g) it in a tarred evaporating dish. For example, for underground or unpowdered drugs, prepare about 10 g of the ‘Official Sample’ by cutting, shredding, so that the parts are about 3 mm in thickness.
Seeds and fruits smaller than 3 mm should be cracked. Avoid the use of high-speed mills in preparing the samples, and exercise care that no appreciable amount of moisture is lost during preparation and that the portion taken is representative of the Official Sample. After placing the above said amount of the drug in the tarred evaporating dish, dry at 105o for 5 hours, and weigh. Continue the drying and weighing at one hour interval until difference between two successive weighings corresponds to not more than 0.25 percent. Constant weight is reached when two consecutive weighings after drying for 30 minutes and cooling for 30 minutes in a desiccator, show not more than 0.01 g difference.
* Separation and Measurement of Moisture – Distillation Method The ‘loss on drying’ methods can be made more specific for the determination of water by separating and evaluating the water obtained from a sample. This can be achieved by passing a dry inert gas through the heated sample and using an absorption train specific for water) to collect the water carried forward; such methods can be extremely accurate.
The sample to be analyzed is placed in a flask together with a suitable water-saturated immiscible solvent (toluene, xylene, carbon tetrachloride) and pieces of porous pot and distilled. The water in the sample has a considerable partial pressure and co-distills with the solvent, condensing in the distillate as an immiscible layer. Apparatus devised for such a purpose permits the direct measurement of the water obtained and the less dense solvent (toluene, xylene) is continuously returned to the distillation flask.
* Gas Chromatography Method Gas chromatography methods have become important for moisture determination due to their specificity and efficiency. The water in the weighed, powdered sample can be extracted with dry methanol and subjected to chromatography on a column. The water separated by this means is readily determined from this chromatogram.
* Chemical Method – Karl Fischer Titration This is particularly applicable for drugs containing small quantities of moisture.
The reagents and solutions used in this method are sensitive to water and precautions must be taken to prevent exposure to atmospheric moisture. The Karl Fischer reagent used for this purpose, consists of a solution of iodine, sulphur dioxide and pyridine in dry methanol. This is titrated against a sample containing water, which causes a loss of the dark brown colour. At the end-point, when no water is available, the colour of the reagent persists.
* Spectroscopic Methods Water will absorb energy at various wavelengths throughout the electromagnetic spectrum and this fact is made a basis for its quantitative estimation. Measurements can be made in both the infrared and ultra-violet regions. This method is suitable for very small quantities of water.
The difference of weights between the fresh and dried plant substance will clearly indicate the weight of water evaporated, for which allowance must be made in the preparation of the menstruum. The dry crude material, after evaporation is taken as the unit of strength, the tincture being made to represent 1 part of this dry crude material in 10 parts of the extracted tincture. It is however to be understood that the fresh green plant is to be used in the preparation of the tincture.
CALCULATION OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT
* Let 10 g of a sample of moist magma or fresh pulp of a plant, say Azadirachta indica be taken.
* It is dried to a constant weight on a water bath. The resultant weight is now 8g.
* Hence, 10 g of moist magma contains 8 g of dried drug substance and 2 g or 2 ml of plant moisture.
* Consider a standard formula for the preparation of Homeopathic mother tincture (1000 ml), taking the dried drug substance as the unit equal to 100 g.
* For 2 g of the dried drug to be present, the amount of pulp required is 10 g.
Hence for 100 g of the dried drug substance to be taken as a unit, the amount of moist magma required = 100 x 10 / 2 = 500 g.
* Hence 500 g of moist magma of Azadirachta indica will contain solids 100 g and plant moisture 400 ml (500 – 100).
CALCULATION OF AMOUNT OF MENSTRUUM
Having determined how much of the dry substance is contained in a given quantity of the fresh moist material, this is to be compared with special tincture formula of the drug.
* If its weight is below that given as the standard in the formula, add enough distilled water to the moist magma to equal the standard weight.
* If on the contrary, the weight of the moist drug substance exceeds the standard of the formula, deduct enough from that intended for the dilution of the solvent alcohol to reduce it to the standard weight. Or, when for practical reasons, this cannot be done, resort to the slower method of evaporating, by cautious drying in moderate temperature, enough of the drug moisture to reduce it to the standard of the formula.
In this process, both in the case of deficiency and of excess of water in the drug, it is to be remembered that the tincture finally consists of alcohol and its proportion of water, plus that of the drug substance dissolved. The extraction of the Homeopathic mother tincture then continues by either maceration or percolation.
EXTRACTION In Hahnemann’s time, the plants used by him were collected from a limited area where soil and climatic conditions varied little from year to year. Tinctures were made by simply expressing the juice from the plant and adding alcohol. The processes of maceration and percolation have superseded this primitive pharmaceutical method.
Extraction is a process in which the active and soluble constituents of a drug are separated from the inert, insoluble portion by the use of an appropriate solvent (menstruum). This is principally done in homoeopathy by the process of maceration and percolation.
In order to understand the principle underlying the process of extraction, it is necessary to appreciate the structure of the ordinary vegetable drug. Any drug representing a plant part is comprised of a collection of cells, either fresh, lately living or long dead; each one of which possesses a wall of more or less thickness. This wall consists of some variety of cellulose or tuberous corky tissue. The cell wall is an insoluble thick envelope, scarcely permeable to liquid, while the active principles that we seek are generally found in the vessels and orifices that are encircled by the wall. To get the solvent in direct contact with the soluble constituents within the cell, it is necessary that the cell wall be ruptured. Hence in extraction, drugs are first comminuted or pounded and pulverized. There are great variations in the characters of vegetable drugs. Thus, some are soft and spongy and can be extracted easily in the whole state, while others are very hard and tough. The cells in some drugs are larger than others; hence some drugs are directed to be powdered more finely than others, the aim being to reduce the powder to a fineness sufficient to ensure the breaking of every individual cell. Hence, knowledge of the botanical structure of the drug is important as a preliminary to extraction.
It is the process of removing the active principles from a drug by allowing the latter to remain at room temperature in contact with the solvent (menstruum) for several days, with frequent agitation.
Digestion is maceration with warm water or water heated below its boiling point. This is usually accomplished by placing the vessel containing the drug and water in a warm place such as the back of a stove or on a radiator.
This process is preferable in the treatment of large quantities of drug material needing ample time for the extraction of medicinal properties. Such would be the case with gummy and mucilaginous substances or those having much viscid juice, which would prevent the menstruum from penetrating the mass as readily as is the case in the process of percolation.
* The plant moisture is ascertained, as described and the quantity of menstruum calculated accordingly.
* If the drug substance can be finely sliced or reduced to pulp in a glazed mortar, this should be done; otherwise it may be used whole or as directed in the respective monographs of the drug.
* Having ascertained the excess or deficiency of water, place the material reduced to magma, or in a natural state, if irreducible, into a macerating jar (preferably made up of a stainless steel or glass) or a wide-mouthed bottle. Add the prescribed, precalculated quantity of solvent, making it cover if possible the entire mass. The jar or bottle should be carefully stoppered or sealed to prevent evaporation, placed in a cool dark room of ordinary temperature, free from dust, odour, heat or direct sunlight and agitated every day.
* The time necessary for the extraction is variable and it is safe to allow the process of maceration to continue from 2 – 4 weeks, according to the nature of the material.
* Thereupon decant the clear supernatant liquid and press out the residue through a press or a clean linen cloth or bag.
* Measure the whole fluid and if found less then the calculated quantity, add the fresh menstruum to the mass and press it again so as to make the required volume. Having allowed the mixed products to stand twenty-four hours, filter.
PREPARATION OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS HOMEOPATHIC MOTHER TINCTURE:
Preparation: Homeopathic mother tincture (?) Drug Strength 1/10 Calendula officinalis moist magma containing – 700 g
solids 100 g and plant moisture 600 ml
Strong alcohol – 437 ml
To make one thousand millilitres of the tincture.
It is a process of extracting the soluble constituents of a drug and preparing the Homeopathic mother tincture by the passage of a solvent (menstruum) through the powdered drug contained in a suitable vessel called percolator for a definite period of time as per directions specified in Pharmacopoeia.
Principle Of Operation In this process, advantage is taken of the force of gravitation. A liquid poured on top of a powder contained in a suitable utensil will gradually penetrate that powder in a downward direction and if there is an orifice in the bottom of the vessel, the descending liquid will emerge from the vessel, being attracted by gravity towards the center of the earth. This downward force of gravitation is aided by another force, namely the weight of the column of liquid above the powder. This downward force varies according to the height of the column of liquid, whereas the force of gravitation remains unchanged.
If this combined action of forces were in operation, the process would be a simple one. However there is an opposing force that comes into play while the process of percolation is in progress, namely the upward force of capillarity. All bodies possessing orifices, more or less narrow have this property of drawing up liquids by their own cohesive force. This is also, most importantly the case with most vegetable drugs, since they consist of a mass of cells, each cell consisting of a more or less minute orifice, surrounded by a cell wall. In other words, cells can be compared to long sealed tubes and when cells are broken by powdering, there is a vast mass of cells, each possessing capillary attraction.
Besides the force of gravity and the pressure of column of liquid above, forcing the solvent downward through the drug, there is at the same time, capillarity of the cells of the drug, powdered to the specified degree of fineness and arranged in a definite way in the percolator, attracting the menstruum in the opposite direction. The moment the solution commences to emerge from the vessel, the capillary attraction of the cells tends to keep the liquid within the substance, acting the force of gravity. Other physical forces that are involved in the process of extraction are the viscosity and adhesion of the packed drug substance.
As the liquid passes through the drug on its downward course, it penetrates the interior of each cell (provided the substance is powdered fine enough). Once the menstruum has penetrated into the cells, solution of the constituents takes place. Passing from one series, it penetrates the next tier of cells, and taking up more active principles, such solution continues until the solvent is saturated with the soluble principles of the drug. When once a saturated solution, it mechanically passes through the rest of the drug and finally emerges from the orifice of the bottom of the percolator, providing always that there is a sufficient column of liquid to force it down. Its passage is followed by a fresh portion of the solvent, which passes through the same cells that it has formerly penetrated, removing the last vestiges of soluble matter and finally emerging from the percolator also as a saturated solution. In this way the menstruum is continually poured on until the cells have been so completely exhausted of their soluble constituents that the final portion of the menstruum comes through devoid of colour and taste, whereupon the drug is said to be exhausted.
The great advantage percolation possesses over maceration is in the fact that, by means of percolation, one can completely remove every trace of soluble matter from a drug by the solvent that passes from it, being followed by a fresh portion of solvent that removes the remainder of the soluble principle. But the efficiency of the process largely depends upon the skill involved in carrying out the process of percolation, right from the comminution of the drug into the specified fineness upto the process of collection of tincture.
This method is adopted for the extraction of dried drugs, dry vegetable substances and other organic (animal) substances.
The utensil in which the drug is packed is called a percolator, and consists of a suitable cylindrical vessel of glass or a metal like stainless steel or copper, provided with an orifice at the bottom. A percolating apparatus consists of the percolator and the receiver. The percolator has a body, which contains the packing and a lower narrow portion called the neck that may be connected to the receiver. The saturated solution emerging from the percolator is called the percolate and is collected in the receiving bottle. The percolator is supported on an appropriate stand.
The process of percolation is considered under the following steps –
Before percolating the drug, it is essential that it be reduced to particles of more or less fineness. The degree of size reduction will depend on the botanical structure of the drug. It is essential that the drug be ground sufficiently to rupture all the cells of which it is composed, and this degree of fineness is dependent upon the structure of the drug – those drugs having small cells calling for a finer degree of comminution than those in which the cells are large. The substances that are very loose and quickly penetrated by the menstruum can afford to be less fine or coarse. The degree of fineness should be in conformity with the specification mentioned under each monograph in the Pharmacopoeia.
The degree of coarseness or fineness of a powder is differentiated and expressed by the size of the mesh of sieve through which the powder is able to pass. The following terms are used in the description of powders:
* Coarse powder (10/44) – a powder of which all the particles pass through a no.10 sieve and not more than 40 Pecent through a no.44 sieve.
* Moderately coarse powder (22/60) – a powder of which all the particles pass through a no.22 sieve and not more than 40 Pecent through a no.60 sieve.
* Moderately fine powder (44/85) – a powder of which all the particles pass through a no.44 sieve and not more than 40 Pecent through a no.85 sieve.
* Fine powder (85) – a powder of which all the particles pass through a no.85 sieve.
* Very fine powder – a powder of which all the particles pass through a silk sieve in which not less than 120 meshes are included in a length of 2.54 cm in each transverse direction parallel to the threads.
When the fineness of a powder is described by means of a number, it is intended that all the particles of the powder shall pass through the sieve distinguished by that number. When a batch of vegetable drug is being ground and sifted, no portion of the drug shall be rejected; but is permissible to withhold the final tailings, if an approximately equal amount of tailings from a preceding batch of the same drug has been added before grinding.
II. Moistening of the drug
Before packing the drug in the percolator, it is moistened with the menstruum. This is done because, when the drug comes in contact with the menstruum, the compressed dried cells are swollen to their normal size, and if this swelling occurred within the percolator, it would cause sufficient expansion to spoil the percolation.
This moistening is accomplished by placing the drug in a suitable container, adding the required quantity of menstruum and mixing it thoroughly with the drug. After being moistened, it should be allowed to remain for half an hour in order to complete the swelling.
III. Packing of the drug
* Take a clean sterilized percolator and if it is not provided with a stop-cock, insert a cork in the lower orifice. This is done by making a small longitudinal groove in such a way that, by pressing the cork into the neck of the percolator with more or less force, the flow of the fluid may be regulated or completely stopped.
* Though proper packing of the powdered drug and gradual addition of the menstruum can yield the required Homeopathic mother tincture of good quality, a filtration arrangement, ‘tow’ can be devised in the percolator, with a special sieving arrangement using powdered green glass or fine white sand. The tow consists of –
– A plug of absorbent cotton in the neck, above the stop-cock or cork.
– Cover this with a layer of coarsely powdered glass (about quarter of an inch).
– This is then covered with a layer of finely powdered glass (about half an inch deep). – Lastly, a thin layer of coarse glass is packed. Fine white sand may be used instead of glass.
(The green glass should be prepared by pounding in a mortar well washed and dried green bottles. The powder should then be washed with distilled water to get rid of the impalpable powder and after being well dried, it should be sorted into three sizes of coarse and fine powder and granulated glass, by passing through sieves of different degrees of fineness.)
* Evenly lay the bottom with layers of powdered glass or sand, pressing it down gently with a broad, flat cork fixed on the end of a glass rod.
* Over this, lay the moistened pulp of the dried substance and evenly press it more firmly, especially when the mass is coarse and particularly when the menstruum is strongly alcoholic, taking care that the mass is compact and not too tight but free from fissures and empty spaces.
* Cover the upper surface of the mass with a disc of filter paper or a thin layer of finely powdered glass or fine white sand.
The menstruum is the solvent used for extracting the active principles of the drug. The pharmacopoeia has specified the nature and quantity of the menstrua to be added for each drug to be percolated.
* After calculating the amount of the medicinal substance, a quantity of the menstruum is taken equaling about ten percent in excess of the amount required by the formula as given in Pharmacopoeia monographs. In other words, there is required about 10 Pecent more of the menstruum than would be used; the surplus quantity of the menstruum is required to make good the waste in retention in the percolate.
* While holding down the mass by means of the flat cork, pour the menstruum, in divided quantity upon the contents until the mass is covered, allowing the fluid to run gently down the glass rod so that the glass or sand may not be displaced. Utmost care has to be taken to pour it so as not to cause the floating of the paper. As the menstruum passes down through the drug, more is added to take its place, it being a rule that there should always be maintained a layer of menstruum above the surface of the drug. If the drug is exposed to the air, evaporation takes place from its surface, and fissures occur through which the menstruum added afterward will run vertically downward.
* Close the percolator with the lid to prevent dust from contaminating.
* Close the valve or stopcock as soon as the fluid begins to drop and allow it to stand for 24 hours or longer, according to the nature of the contents.
* Next allow the fluid to pass through the percolator into the receiver, drop by drop, regulating it by means of the stop-cock or cork so as not to allow the flow to exceed
10-30 drops in a minute.
* The menstruum should be cautiously added so as to maintain a surface above the powder, thereby preventing access of air. Continue this until the requisite quantity of the menstruum has passed through the percolator and the last drop from it has been received in the receiver.
V. Termination of percolation
* Once the last drop is received, add sufficient quantity of menstruum to cover the mass in the percolator and close the mouth of the percolator with the lid to prevent further percolation. This arrangement is allowed to stand for six hours.
* Open the stop cork and allow the whole fluid to percolate in the receiver.
* The residue left after the process of percolation, called marc retains a considerable amount of the moisture. Remove this marc; press it strongly to extract the remaining tincture from it. Add sufficient menstruum to make the required volume.
* The resulting tincture is then filtered through white filter paper or absorbent cotton, directly into glass bottles that are tightly stoppered and preserved in a dark, cool place and marked with the sign ? (1/10). This represents the strongest liquid preparation made directly from the medicinal substance and also showing the proportion of drug substance that the Homeopathic mother tincture represents.
Any change of taste or odour indicates deterioration and as a rule they should remain clear and free from sediment. Changes of temperature, in some cases, may cause precipitation, which should be removed by filtration.
If the process is properly conducted, the result will be that the first part of the tincture passing through the drug will be very nearly, if not fully, saturated with the medicinal substance; and the last portion of the tincture, provided the menstruum be sufficient in quantity to exhaust the drug substance, will be very nearly, if not entirely, free from taste, odour or colour other than that of the menstruum contained therein.
PREPATION OF HOMEOPATHIC MOTHER TINCTURE IGNATIA AMARA
Preparation of Homeopathic Mother tincture (*) Drug Strength 1/10 Ignatia amara in fine powder – 100 g
Purified water – 150 ml
Strong alcohol – 870 ml
To make one thousand millilitres of the tincture.
PREPATION OF HOMEOPATHIC MOTHER TINCTURE HYOSCYAMUS NIGER:
Preparation of Homeopathic mother tincture (*) Drug Strength 1/10
Hyoscyamus niger in moderately coarse powder – 100 g
Purified water – 450 ml
Strong alcohol – 585 ml
To make one thousand millilitres of the tincture.
PREPATION OF HOMEOPATHIC MOTHER TINCTURE CHAMOMILLA:
Preparation of Homeopathic mother tincture (*) Drug Strength 1/10
Chamomilla in coarse powder – 100 g
Purified water – 500 ml
Strong alcohol – 537 ml
To make one thousand millilitres of the tincture.
MACERATION PREVIOUS TO PERCOLATION
This is a modification of percolation and is necessary in the case of all fresh vegetable substances that have much mucilaginous and viscid juice and hence will not allow the spirit to pass through readily.
* Use only one-half of the menstruum prepared for the purpose and keep it for three to seven days with the pulp and press out the tincture thereafter.
* After maceration, press out the residue, triturate it lightly in a mortar, add twice its bulk of finely powdered green glass and with the remaining half of the menstruum, subject the whole to the process of percolation.
* Then add the clear percolated and filtered liquid to that previously decanted and preserve the now completed tincture in a well-corked bottle in a dark and cool place.
The mixing of strong alcohol and distilled water is accompanied by contraction of and consequent loss in volume. On the other hand, the liquefaction of solids is likely to cause an increase in volume. Both instances are to be compensated for according to the formulae referring to each drug as in Pharmacopoeia.
Examples of plants requiring to be treated by this process (B.H.P.) – Agaricus muscaris, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Colchicum autumnale, Cyclamen europoeum, Viola odorata, Viola tricolor, Viscum album
INFUSIONS AND DECOCTIONS (B.H.P)
Though these are not generally recognised, they may be occasionally employed. Many plants yield their virtues more fully to water than to alcohol or any other menstrum. There is, however, a great practical difficulty as regards these preperations that they cannot be kept for long. Addition of a ceertain proportion of alcohol may prevent it from decomposition. These preparations must be made fresh when required.
If attenuations of these are required, they must be as soon as the preparations are ready – Pure distilled water being used for the first decimal and centesimal, dilute alcohol for the third decimal, and rectified spirit (dispensing alcohol) for the second centisimal and upwards.
Reduce the drug to a coarse powder and thoroughly moisten with a little water. Then pack it in a percolator and add 10 parts of distilled water for every 1 part of dry materail into the percolator in the ordinary way.
Reduce the drug to a coarse powder, tie it loosely in a bag of clear, wll – washed book-muslin and then pour 10 parts of boiling distilled water for every 1 part of dry material into an infusion pot. Place the bag containing the substance on the diaphragm cover over the vessel, and keep it in a warm place for an hour. The fluid is poured off and that retained in the bag squeezed out and the two mixed together and filtered.
Reduce the drug to a coarse powder and put into a pocelain dish. Then pour 10 parts of distilled water for 1 part of dry material over it. Place the dish over a water bath raise it to 200 degree F and keep it at that temperature for half an hour. The fluid is then decanted and filtered and the loss by evaporation made good.
1. * It is the process of removing the active principles from a drug by allowing the latter to remain at room temperature in contact with the menstruum for several days, with frequent agitation.
2.* This process is preferable in the treatment of large quantities of drug material needing ample time for the extraction of medicinal properties. Such would be the case with gummy and mucilaginous substances or those having much viscid juice, which would prevent the menstruum from penetrating the mass as readily as is the case in the process of percolation.
3.* The process of maceration may continue for 2 to 4 weeks, according to the nature of the material.
4.* The menstruum is kept in contact with the drug material during which it extracts the active principles of the drug.
5.* The process of maceration does not require a special operative skill.
1. * It is a process of extracting the soluble constituents of a drug and preparing the Homeopathic mother tincture by the passage of a solvent (menstruum) through the powdered drug contained in a suitable vessel called percolator for a definite period of time as per directions specified in Pharmacopoeia.
2. * This method is adopted for the extraction of dried drugs, dry vegetable substances and other organic (animal) substances.
3. * The process of percolation usually requires 24 hours for the extraction.
4. * The menstruum flows through the column of the packed drug extracting the properties of the drug during its downward flow.
5. * Skill is required in packing the percolator and carrying out the process of percolation.
1. * This method was introduced, based on the guidelines given by Hahnemann.
2. * Hahnemann observed that plant moisture is a part of medicinal substance.
3. * All alcoholic medicinal solutions (tinctures, extracts, etc.) to be represented by the dry crude drug as the unit of strength in the case of tinctures made from dry substances and by the plant juice as the unit when made from fresh green drugs.
4. * Old Hahnemannian methods involved preparation of tinctures of variable strengths.
According to the Old Method of preparation of Homeopathic mother tinctures, solutions and triturates have variable drug strengths.
Class I, II – 1/2
Class III – 1/6
Class IV – 1/10
Class VA, VIA – 1/10
Class VB, VIB – 1/100
5. * Four different formulae for tinctures were devised for the preparation of the plant drugs.
1. * In accordance with the suggestion made by the Special Committee and adopted by the American Institute of Homoeopathy at Niagara Falls in 1888, the Pharmacopoeia Committee have prescribed the necessary rules to make the dilutions to correspond in medicinal strength (drug power) with triturations of the same number.
2. * The modern view is that the plant moisture constitutes merely as a vehicle or menstruum and forms no part of medicinal substance.
3. * In every instance, the dry crude substance is to be taken as the starting point from whence to calculate its strength.
4. * “The Preparation of Homeopathic mother tinctures contain all the soluble matter of one grain of the dry plant in ten minims of the tincture”.
The tincture, therefore, represents one-tenth part medicinal substance and should represent the 1X potency (drug strength = 1/10), thereby corresponding in strength with the 1X trituration. Uniformity is thus secured.
5. * No such classification is present.
* What is moisture content? How will you estimate moisture content? Explain the calculation of moisture content and the amount of menstruum to be added.
* What is the Modern view of preparation of Homeopathic mother tincture? Explain Maceration or Percolation in detail.
* Discuss the operation of percolation in detail.
* Differentiate between maceration and percolation.
* Differentiate between Old and Modern method of preparation of Homeopathic mother tincture.
1. A liquid capable of penetrating the tissues of plant or animal substances and capable of dissolving the active principle is known as
(d) Mother tincture
2. Soft, non-gummy, non-mucilagenous drug substances are used in the process of
3. The peculiarity of the Modern method of preparation of Homeopathic mother tincture is
(a) Plant moisture is considered a part of the drug substance
(b) Variable drug strengths
(c) Uniform drug strength (1/10)
(d) Multiple classes for preparation of Homeopathic mother tincture
4. The pre-requisite of the modern method of preparation of mother tincture is
(a) Determination of moisture content
(b) Identification of active principles
(c) Division of the drug into classes
(d) None of the above
ANSWERS: 1 (c); 2 (d); 3 (c); 4 (a).