COMPLETE BLOOD PICTURE (CBP / CBA)
STOOL ANALYSIS
URINALYSIS ( CUE )
CYTOLOGY ( FNAC / FNAB )
HISTOPATHOLOGY ( SURGICAL PATHOLOGY,IHC, EHC etc.)
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY ( SEM / TEM )

COMPLETE BLOOD PICTURE (CBP / CBA):
HAEMOGLOBIN ( Hb g % ) – A, F, S etc
Normal – 14.5 + 2 (M) and 13.5 + 2 (F)
Normochromia ( MCHC – 28 TO 32 %)
Hypo – iron def., thalassemias etc (MCHC – < 28% )
Hyperchromia – Sphero,B12 & fol. def. ( MCHC-36%)
Inc. Hb – spherocytosis, megaloblastic anemias etc.
Dec. Hb – menorrhagia, hookworm,chronic blood loss and infections, MAS, malignancies etc.
Hb Electrophoresis.

2) RBC’s ( 4 to 5 millions / cumm)
Microcytic – dec. Hb conditions, malig., chr. bleeds etc.
Macrocytic – inc. Hb conditions , myxedema, chronic liver diseases etc.
Spherocyte, Sickle , Elliptocyte – Heriditary, megaloblastic an., Myelofibrosis etc.
Aniso/poikilocytosis – Stomatocyte – Heriditary, alcoholism etc.

3) ESR ( upto 20 mm / 1st hour)- depends on viscosity (necrosis)
Low : Hypo/agammaglobulemia.,polycythemia etc.
High : Menstruation , pregnancy, infections, malignancy etc
Importance : Activity of disease, prognosis (TB,RA,RF,HL)

4) WBC’s ( 4 – 11 th/ cumm)
Neutro ( 60 – 70 % ) – Acute inf., infl. of git ( upto 70 th.), leukemias ( above 1 lakh ), leukamoid reaction
Lympho ( 25 – 30 %) – viral inf., Kochs, chr. Inf., MALTomas etc.
Eosino ( 1 – 5 % ) – Parasitic, Trop. Eosino, Eosinophilic gastritis etc.(upto 35% -)
Mono ( 2-3 %) – Leukemia, Inf. Mononucleosis, Lymphomas, storage disorders, mastocytosis in git.disorders
etc

PLATELETS ( 1.5 to 4 lakhs / cumm)
Inc – CHD, Pul.embolism etc.
Dec – purpura and complications, chemo / radiotherapy etc.

BLEEDING & CLOTTING TIME ( 3-11 min)
BT ( 2 – 9 min) – pl. disorder ( BP app.)
CT ( 3 -11 min) – coagulation disorder ( Test tube )

STOOL ANALYSIS:
Pus + blood = Dysentry (RBC clumps – Amoebic, discrete – bacillary )
Bulky = Steatorrhea
Red streaks = F-I-Ano,Fresh – Haemarrhoids/dysent
Black= Malignancy/polyp, Fe, constipation.
Green = children – bacterial infection (pseudomona)
Rice water = Cholera / viral diarrhoea
Ova = Tapeworm, roundworm, threadworm etc
Cysts = Ent. Histo., E.coli, giardiasis, enterobius etc
Benzidine test (occult blood), Benedicts (reducing sugars) and stercobilinogen ( Haemolytic anaemias)

URINALYSIS
Physical – color, transparency, reaction — —
Protein and sugar – —–
BS,BP – icterus (obstruction- no urobilinogen – uro.+ – obstr.relieved.)
Ketone bodies – diabetic ketoacidosis
Microscopy ——-

CYTOPATHOLOGY
Most commonly employed
U/S and CT guided FNAC
Diagnosis accurate 50 – 70 % cases
Preliminary tool for differentiating origin of tumors

HISTOPATHOLOGY
Most confirmatory and ultimate diagnostic tool.
Unambiguous
Staging and prognostication possible. ( TNM class.& grading of tumor)
Retrievable and re-visitable after long periods of time.
Most preferred.

Dr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo)
International Homeopathic Consultant at Ushahomeopathy
I am a Homeopathic Physician. I am practicing Homeopathy since 20 years. I treat all kinds of Chronic and Acute complaints with Homeopathic Medicines. Even Emergency conditions can be treated with Homeopathy if case is properly managed. know more about me and my research on my blog https://www.homeoresearch.com/about-me/
Dr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo) on EmailDr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo) on FacebookDr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo) on GoogleDr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo) on LinkedinDr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo) on RssDr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo) on TwitterDr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo) on Wordpress