– VERMEULEN Frans

Mag-c.
When a man finds no peace within himself, it is useless to seek it elsewhere.
[McKenzie]
Signs
Magnesium carbonate.
CLASSIFICATION Magnesium, the second lightest alkali earth, is placed in group 2 of the periodic table, along with beryllium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium. Recognized as an element in 1755 by Black, it was isolated by Davy in 1808 and prepared in coherent form by Bussy in 1831. Magnesium came from ores obtained from a white earth, magnes carneus, found in Magnesia, a district in ancient Thessaly.
DISTRIBUTION Magnesium is the 8th most abundant element in the earth’s crust. It does not occur uncombined, but is found in large deposits in the form of magnesite, dolomite, carnallite, epsomite, and some 200 other minerals. The main mining areas are found in Australia, China, Poland, Russia, USA, Canada, and India, The metal is principally obtained in the U.S. by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride derived from brines, wells, and seawater.
SEAWATER Seawater contains about 3.5% dissolved salts; the chief one include: sodium chloride [2.94%], magnesium chloride [0.32%], magnesium sulphate [0.15%], calcium sulphate [0.14%], sodium bromide [0.06%], potassium chloride [0.05%], calcium carbonate [0.01%], and iron oxide [less than 0.001%]. On evaporation the sequence of precipitation is: calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and other potassium and magnesium salts. 1 While resisting cold water, magnesium readily dissolves in seawater; hence the seas and oceans are a storehouse of practically inexhaustible and constantly replenished reserves of it. A mere cubic metre of seawater contains nearly 4 kilograms of magnesium. An estimated 2 quadrillion [215] tons of the metal is dissolved in the waters of the seas and oceans.
FEATURES A light, silvery-white, relatively soft but fairly tough metal, magnesium tarnishes slightly in air. The metal reacts very slowly with water at ordinary temperatures, less slowly at 100 degrees C. Difficult to ignite in solid form, for it must be heated above its melting point before it will burn. But finely divided magnesium will readily ignite upon heating in air, even by a spark or the flame of a match. At room temperature it will flare up when combined with chlorine. It burns with a dazzling white flame and will continue to burn in a current of steam. [The intensity of the Olympic torch flame is produced by a mix of oxygen-generating chemicals as well as finely powdered magnesium.] Burning magnesium emits large quantities of ultraviolet light and heat, four grams of it is sufficient to bring a glass of ice-cold water to a boil. Magnesium combines directly with nitrogen, sulphur, the halogens, phosphorus, and arsenic. It is one third lighter than aluminium and one fifth of the weight of copper. On the one hand, as a ‘sacrificial’ electrode it will protect other metals that are exposed to seawater and ground water; on the other hand, magnesium is very aggressive, easily depriving most elements of oxygen and chlorine. The metal is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
REACTIVITY Magnesium dust or powder is extremely reactive. In powdered form it is severely water reactive, liberating flammable fumes [hydrogen] on contact. Contact with strong oxidizers causes fire or explosion. The dust forms an explosive mixture with air. Magnesium fires flare up violently when moisture is present; water will make the fire worse, whilst dry sand, earth or soda ash will smother it. Magnesium forms explosive mixtures or readily ignitable compounds with many substances. With acids it reacts to form flammable hydrogen gas; with aluminium it forms a readily ignitable compound when heated; with ammonium nitrate it forms an explosive mixture; with barium carbonate it forms explosive acetylide; a combination with calcium carbonate and hydrogen [moisture] produces a violent explosion if heated; with gold cyanide or manganese incandescent reactions occur; fire and explosion hazard exist when combined with nitric acid, phosphates, potassium carbonate, silicon dioxide, sulphates, or carbon dioxide; contact with sulphur or tellurium results in explosive reactions. 2
USES Magnesium is used in flashlight photography, flares, and pyrotechnics, including incendiary bombs. Also used as an additive to conventional propellant; as a reducing agent in the production of pure uranium, titanium, and other metals from their salts; in medicine, in the form of hydroxide [milk of magnesia], chloride, sulphate [Epsom salts], and citrate; for the manufacture of precision instruments and optical mirrors; in dry batteries [instead of zinc]. Talc or soapstone is magnesium silicate; finely powdered talc is the main ingredient of baby and bath powders, face powders, eye shadows, liquid powders, protective creams, face masks, skin fresheners, and foot powders. Prolonged inhalation can cause lung problems.
LIGHTNESS Magnesium makes alloys light and as such is essential in alloys for airplane and missile construction. It improves the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics of aluminium when used as an alloying agent. Parts made of magnesium alloys are 20-30% lighter than aluminium parts and 50-75% lighter than cast-iron or steel parts. Lithium, beryllium, calcium, cerium, cadmium and titanium are ‘compatible partners’ for magnesium in the manufacture of alloys; they increase the refractoriness, ductility, and corrosion resistance. Iron, silicon, and nickel, on the other hand, impair the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys and reduce their corrosion resistance.
CARBONATE Magnesium carbonate is insoluble in water but soluble in dilute acids. It is used pharmaceutically as an antacid and laxative; for fireproofing and heat insulation; for clarifying liquids by filtration [drinking water]; in tooth and face powders, baby powders and bath powders; as a perfume carrier; in polishing compounds; in the manufacture of mineral waters, pigments, and paper; as a filler for rubber; as an drying and anticaking agent, and in table salt; as an alkali for sour cream, butter, ice cream, and canned peas; common additive [E504] to cocoa and chocolate products.
PHYSIOLOGY A person of 70 kg contains an average of 20 gram magnesium, half of which is found in the bones, together with calcium and phosphorus. Smaller amounts in the blood activate hundreds of enzymes and participate in various biochemical activities. It works with enzymes that break down glycogen to glucose and as such is involved in the transfer of energy. It is also involved in the flow of elements across cell membranes, and here its most important function relates to muscle relaxation. Movement of calcium across cell membranes causes muscle contractions; when calcium leaves and is replaced by magnesium, muscle relax. Magnesium is a cofactor for the vitamins B1 and B6. It is required for the proper growth and formation of bone, muscle tissues, and enzymes, and is essential for stabilizing structure of body cells, and in their repair and maintenance. The need for magnesium in man [and animals] is greater when their nourishment is rich in carbohydrates. Levels are often low in states of severe infection. During winter sleep in trees and hibernant animals increases in magnesium concentration are observed in plant juice and in animal blood serum.
ABSORPTION-EXCRETION “Magnesium salts are poorly absorbed from the intestine. In cases of overload this may be due in part to their dehydrating action. Magnesium is absorbed mainly in the small intestine; the colon also absorbs some. Calcium and magnesium are competitive with respect to their absorptive sites, and excess calcium may partially inhibit the absorption of magnesium. Magnesium is excreted into the digestive tract by the bile and pancreatic and intestinal juices. A small amount of radiomagnesium given intravenously appears in the gastrointestinal tract. The serum levels are remarkably constant. There is an apparent obligatory urinary loss of magnesium, which amounts to about 12 mg/day, and the urine is the major route of excretion under normal conditions. Magnesium found in the stool is probably not absorbed. Magnesium is filtered by the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the renal tubules. In the blood plasma about 65% is in the ionic form, while the remainder is bound to protein. The former is that which appears in the glomerular filtrate. Excretion also occurs in the sweat and milk.”3
LUNGS Higher magnesium intake has been linked to lung function, according to an English study. Researchers at the University of Nottingham found that adults having a 100 mg/day higher than average intake of magnesium exhibited increased lung function, and benefits were consistent regardless of whether or not the subjects smoked. Conversely, low magnesium intake, or magnesium deficiency, may be involved in the aetiology of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease. Many studies support the connection between magnesium deficiency and asthma, and also note that drugs used in the treatment of asthma caused loss of magnesium. 4
HEART Magnesium in waterborne solution is more readily assimilated by the intestinal tract than the same quantity in food. This indicates the importance of magnesium provision through drinking water. The hardness of water is mainly made up by calcium and magnesium compounds; hard water is rich in them and soft water is poor in them. Numerous studies suggest that death rates from coronary heart disease are higher in soft-water areas worldwide. The Japanese researcher Kobayashi was the first to observe, in 1957, a geographical correlation between stroke-associated mortality and drinking water composition. Later studies confirmed that drinking hard water decreases cardiovascular risk. One of them was a study that followed the mortality rate in 11 English cities where the water hardness had changed between 1950 and 1960. Hardness had increased in five cities and decreased in six. Mortality from cardiovascular disease increased about 10% in the general population during the period of study. In the cities where hardness had decreased, mortality had increased by 20%. In the cities where hardness had increased mortality had increased by 8.5%. Since magnesium deficiency is widespread in the United States, a Citizen’s Petition was submitted to the FDA in 1994 to request addition of bio-available magnesium carbonate to bottled or canned water and water-based beverages, including soft drinks and beer, to provide at least 90 mg per litre of beverage. 5 In intensive care units hypomagnesemia is frequently associated with hypokalemia and hypocalcemia. In one study, hypomagnesemia was found in 65% of an intensive care population and 11% of an outpatient population. Magnesium has been shown to increase the speed of recovery from open-heart surgery. Pharmacologically, magnesium is used in acute myocardial infarction – it is the drug of choice at the onset of a heart attack -, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, alcohol withdrawal, and pre-eclampsia.
DEFICIENCY Magnesium can be depleted in the body by high dietary intake of alcohol, sweet foods, saturated fats, milk, phosphate calcium, and vitamin D. Kidney disease, diabetes, antibiotics, heart drugs, contraceptive pill, and diuretics may also lead to magnesium depletion. “Magnesium depletion usually results from inadequate intake plus impairment of renal or gut absorption. It has been described in association with [1] prolonged parenteral feeding, usually in combination with loss of body fluids via gastric suction or diarrhoea; [2] lactation [increased requirement of magnesium]; and [3] conditions of abnormal renal conservation of magnesium, such as hypersecretion of aldosterone, AHD, or thyroid hormone, hypercalcemia, diabetic acidosis, and cisplatin or diuretic therapy. Clinically significant magnesium deficiency most commonly is associated with [1] malabsorption syndromes from all causes, in which elevated faecal magnesium is probably related to the level of steatorrhoea rather than to deficient bowel absorptive sites per se; [2] protein-calorie malnutrition; [3] parathyroid disease, in which hypomagnesemia is seen after removal of a parathyroid tumour, especially if severe osteitis fibrosa is present [presumably], magnesium is transferred to rapidly mineralizing bone, and magnesium deficiency may account for the resistance of hypocalcemia to correction with vitamin D in occasional patients with hypoparathyroidism; [4] chronic alcoholism, in which hypomagnesemia probably is due to both inadequate intake and excessive renal excretion; and [5] chronic diarrhoea. Neonatal hypomagnesemia occurs in normal premature infants, in familial hypoparathyroidism, after exchange transfusion, and in infants of mothers having diabetes mellitus, toxaemia, hyperparathyroidism, and magnesium deficiency. It often is associated with hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia.”6 Recent studies have shown that magnesium deficiency is found in 25% of eating disorders, such as obesity and anorexia nervosa. Magnesium is one of the nutrients needed to lose weight.
SYMPTOMS The clinical manifestations arising from chronic magnesium deficiency can be roughly divided into three categories: [1] Central, or nervous, manifestations consist of fits of anxiety [even sometimes with the impression of imminent death; panic attack], hyperemotionality, hyperactivity [in children], nervous fits, lump sensation in throat, light-headedness and dizziness, insomnia, involuntary eye movements, tongue jerks and tremors, blocked respiration, unsteady gait, fatigue, convulsions and seizures, and latent tetany [e.g. positive Chvostek’s sign]. [2] Peripheral manifestations of cramps, muscle pains, paraesthesia of extremities, and twitchings. [3] Organ-specific functional disorders producing chest pain [resembling coronary heart disease], palpitations, extrasystoles, arrhythmia, and Raynaud’s syndrome; prostate enlargement, bedwetting, and kidney stones; nausea and vomiting. 7 Chvostek’s sign may be positive, indicating ‘facial irritability in tetany, unilateral spasms of the orbicular oculi or oris muscle being excited by a slight tap over the facial nerve just anterior to the external auditory meatus.’ In homoeopathy, interestingly, the Magnesiums are known for their affinity with the facial nerve, resulting in prosopalgia.
EXCESS Toxicity – the magnesium ion has a curare-like action – is rare, except in cases of kidney failure where excess magnesium is not eliminated from the body. Toxic signs of magnesium excess are thirst, flushing of the skin, muscle weakness, fatigue, low blood pressure, confusion, loss of reflexes, and depression of respiration and heart rate leading to death at very high magnesium levels. Too large intakes of oral doses of magnesium result in diarrhoea, by which the body will get rid of an excess. Industrial inhalation exposure to magnesium [powder] results in conjunctivitis, nasal catarrh, and coughing up of discoloured sputum. Some investigators have reported a higher incidence of digestive disorders in magnesium plant workers and suggest that a relationship may exist between magnesium absorption and gastroduodenal ulcers.
AGGRESSION “Rodent studies suggest that magnesium has a complex relationship with aggressive behaviours. Magnesium deficiency reduces offensive aggressive behaviour but increases defensive aggressive behaviour. Lower levels of magnesium supplementation increase the number of attacks on intruders while higher levels have the opposite effect. In humans, magnesium deficiency, which enhances catecholamine secretion and sensitivity to stress, may promote aggressive behaviour. Increased catecholamines, in turn, induce intracellular magnesium losses and, eventually, increased urinary losses of magnesium. It has been suggested that the Type A behaviour pattern – which is associated with chronic stress and aggressive behaviour – may both cause and be caused by magnesium deficiency. Also, suicide attempts, which are violently aggressive acts against the self, have been correlated with lowered magnesium levels in the cerebrospinal fluid.”8
SOURCES The normal daily requirement is 300-400 mg for adults and 250 mg for children; pregnant and lactating women need 450 mg per day. Food sources high in magnesium are [in decreasing order]: sunflower seeds, soy beans, nuts [especially almonds and cashews], fish, wholewheat flour, brown rice, shellfish, legumes, vegetables, and greenleaf vegetables. A diet high in dairy and low in whole grains can lead to excess calcium in the tissues and a magnesium deficiency. Premenstrual chocolate craving is considered to be often a sign of magnesium deficiency because chocolate is extremely high in this element. Plants with a high magnesium content include Carya [hickory], Chondrus crispus [Irish moss], Portulaca [purslane], Papaver somniferum [opium poppy], Avena sativa [oats], Spinacia [spinach], Glycyrrhiza glabra [liquorice], Rhus copallina [dwarf sumac], Symphoricarpus orbiculatus [buckbush], Lactuca sativa [lettuce], Fucus vesiculosis [bladderwrack], Urtica dioica [stinging nettle], and Borago officinalis [borage]. 9
PLANTS Magnesium is extremely important in chlorophyll, an organic molecule with a single magnesium atom at its eye [centre]. Chlorophyll holds its magnesium eye to the sun and captures the energy of sunlight, in the first step of photosynthesis. Aside from this important function, it is the activator of many enzymes in plants. The element is required by plants in relatively large amounts. Deficiencies are most likely to occur in strongly acid, sandy soils. “The first and most pronounced symptom of magnesium deficiency is a chlorosis due to a breakdown of chlorophyll in the regions of the leaf that lie between the veins [the interveinal regions]. Chloroplasts in the regions of the veins are for some reason less susceptible to magnesium deficiency and retain their chlorophyll much longer. Magnesium is also quite mobile and readily withdrawn from the older leaves. Consequently, chlorosis due to magnesium deficiency is most pronounced in older leaves.”10 [By comparison: calcium is relatively immobile in plants and the symptoms typically appear in the youngest tissues first.]
PROVINGS •• [1] Hahnemann – 3 [male] provers; method: unknown. Hahnemann included symptoms from Hartlaub and Trinks’s Materia Medica Pura, despite the fact that “they have altogether the stamp of having been issued from the ever-ready symptom-factory of Ng.” [Ng = Nenning].
•• [2] Mezger – 28 provers, 1936-39; method: 6x, followed by 2x and 1x [17 provers], daily doses for 12 weeks; 12x and 15x [17 provers], daily doses for 4-8 weeks.
[1] Hurlbut, Dana’s Manual of Mineralogy. [2] Magnesium, Material Safety Data Sheet, University of California; website. [3] Klaassen, Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology. [4] Medline Abstracts on The Magnesium Web Site. [5] Citizen Petition, 1994; The Magnesium Web Site. [6] Merck Manual. [7] Durlach, Present and future of magnesium research, 1993; The Magnesium Web Site. [8] Werbach, Nutritional Influences on Aggressive Behaviour; website. [9] Plant contents from: Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases; website. [10] Hopkins, Introduction to Plant Physiology.
Affinity
DIGESTIVE TRACT [stomach; bowels; liver]. NERVES [facial; dental]. Malar bones. * Left side. Right side.
Modalities
Worse: NIGHT. Rest. Noise. Cold [changes of weather; wind; drafts]. Food; starchy; milk. Slight causes, touch, etc. Children. Nurselings. Before and during menses. Standing. Every third week. During pregnancy. Warmth of bed.
Better: Motion. Walking about. Open air. Eating warm soup. Flow of menses. After stool.
Main symptoms
M Bad-tempered, SOUR and OVERSENSITIVE.
• “The Magnesium personality is characterized by activity out of bounds. It is in a state of continuous flash fires and explosions of endless emotional up and down of angry outbursts and fearful depressions. Magnesium may well be called the most violent, ill-tempered, erratic but also fearful and depressed remedy of our Materia Medica. Its nearest resemblance for comparison would be Chamomilla. But unlike the acute and transitory temper tantrum of Chamomilla, the Magnesium state is the expression of a permanent constitutional personality pattern.” [Whitmont]
M Flare-ups.
• “We deal here with people of a basic central emotional imbalance and unsteadiness. They helplessly are under the sway of their drives and impulses. The patients are excessively oversensitive, hysterical, irritable and subject to the extremist forms of emotional tensions. They are utterly unable to control their emotions or impose any amount of self-discipline upon them; subject to violent rages, fury, temper tantrums, the terror of the family or of the office should they be in charge. Full of fears and anxieties, children screaming at the sight of the doctor. Here we may remember that often fear is the reaction to one’s own repressed, unconscious violence. Hypochondriacs, who are sure that every trifling indisposition is a catastrophical illness without hope of recovery, eternal complainers, violent bosses, patients in a state of nervous exhaustion but also, in the writer’s own experience, borderline near psychotic cases marked by fear or depression. It definitely would deserve a trial as a most promising drug in manic-depressive, as well as schizophrenic patients whenever the symptoms agree. [In the actual near psychotic states of my own experience, most frequently, the indication was for Magnesia muriatica].” [Whitmont]
M SENSITIVE to QUARRELS.
Peacemakers. [Vithoulkas]
[Making peace is the projected attempt to pacify their own underlying violence.]
• “Not infrequently, the mental state is marked by a seemingly quiet and composed disposition. In these cases, the stormy, touchy violence is either hidden under a mask as the family will tell you or a discipline imposed by strongest will power has succeeded in driving the stormy emotions underground. Such people, if they be of the Magnesium constitution, may then suddenly find themselves on the verge of a nervous breakdown descending upon them out of the blue sky. Or the repressed violence, deprived of the emotional outlet, expresses itself in its physiological equivalent in storms of the autonomic nervous system. Just as it is the most temperamentally imbalanced, so Magnesium is also the most violently spastic and neuralgic drug of our Materia Medica. [This is true of all Magnesias, not merely the phosphate].” [Whitmont]
M Forsaken feeling [feels unloved by his parents, friends].
[May be indicated in orphans or neglected children, or in adults with such a childhood, or in adults who as a child witnessed a lot of quarrels between their parents.]
Dreams of getting lost in a forest or at home.
• “If Sulphur is the great unwashed, Magnesia carb. is the great unloved, the illegitimate child, the droopy yet tense orphanage kid, anxious, silent, insecure, with twitching face and fingers and reproachful eyes. With sunken neck and temples, always nibbling for comfort, craving meat, a veritable Oliver Twist. Marasmus, inanition, unwanted. Magnesium in the human body occurs pre-eminently in the sperm and in the vegetable kingdom, in seeds. The child needing magnesium lacks creativity. It has great trouble with wisdom teeth; for folks who come hard by what wisdom they have. Puny, sickly, sour babies who refuse milk, pitifully sensitive to noise and touch. Children of a tubercular background who are going into a decline. Spare, thin, dark, irritable, exhausted, unattractive children whom nobody loves. Folk who need soothing. Worn-out women who can’t even keep house properly, restless, chilly, listless shadow-wives of exigent males.”1
M Children who get behind at school due to problems with WRITING and reading.
Absent-minded while writing.
Concentration difficult during writing.
Dullness while writing.
Inability to read, in children.
Calcarea has problems with calculating.
M Feelings of insecurity, leading to hyperactivity.
Problem child. [Children of tuberculous parentage. – Allen.]
• compare: “Magnesium has reduced hyperactivity in children in preliminary research. Other research suggests that some children with ADD have lowered levels of magnesium. In a preliminary but controlled trial, 50 ADD children with low magnesium [as determined by red blood cell, hair, and serum levels of magnesium] were given 200 mg of magnesium per day for six months. Compared with 25 other magnesium-deficient ADD children, those given magnesium supplementation had a significant decrease in hyperactive behaviour.”2
G Chilly, yet craving for open air [walking in open air > mental symptoms].
G Chilliness + tendency to take cold.
[= coryza, toothache, sore throat, cough].
< Before menses. G THIRST; extreme. Violent thirst for water, esp. in the evening and at night. [Clarke] [Magnesium is up to 30% more bioavailable in water, particularly carbonated water.] G Desire for MEAT + aversion to vegetables; or vice versa. G < MILK. G > Open air, but COLD air <. G < NIGHT. [restless, nervous; pains <]. Consequently more tired on waking than when retiring. Pains < at night. [toothache, prosopalgia, rheumatic pains; patient has to leave bed and walk about]. Mental symptoms – anguish, anxiety, fear – may > in warmth of bed.
G Evening < or >.
• “The Magnesium patient is always a ‘night person’.” [Mezger]
G Nervous exhaustion.
• “Nervous, flatulent and flabby.” [Boger]
G SOUR.
[temper, taste in mouth, perspiration, secretions]
G Sharp, shooting pains.
Painful weariness, esp. of legs and feet.
‘Heavy, weary feet.’
G Colics.
[abdominal; intestinal; uterine]
< Before menses. > Bending double.
Followed by thin stool.
G Pains and PERSPIRATION [Cham.].
G PMS. [Mag-c. has numerous symptoms which appear or aggravate before menses.]
[Magnesium deficiency is considered a causative factor in PMS. Magnesium supplementation may improve emotional instability, menstrual cramps, headache, dizziness, and cravings for sweets occurring before menstruation.]
P Hyperthyroidism.
[Mezger’s proving demonstrated Magnesium’s pronounced effect upon the thyroid.]
Swelling; pressure sensation and tenderness.
Choking and sensitivity to clothes pressure in thyroid and neck area.
• “Mezger draws attention to the fact that in the family ascendancy of Magnesium types, one frequently finds hyperthyroidism which ipso facto is a potential Magnesium indication. He therefore suggests there may be a familial incidence of the Magnesium constitution by dominant inheritance. … With this tendency to toxic goitre, we see again a confirmation of the complementary relationship to Calcarea which produces and cures fibrous goitre. Also here, Magnesium represents the overactive driving versus the slowing and arresting tendency of Calcarea.” [Whitmont]
• “Neonatal hypomagnesemia occurs in normal premature infants, in familial hypoparathyroidism, and in infants of mothers having hyperparathyroidism, and magnesium deficiency. It often is associated with hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia.”3
• “Hypomagnesemia can also occur as part of the ‘hungry bone’ syndrome, in which there is increased magnesium uptake by renewing bone after parathyroidectomy [for hyperparathyroidism] or thyroidectomy [for hyperthyroidism].”4
P GREENISH diarrhoea, frothy, lienteric, like scum on a frog pond.
Preceded by cramping pain in abdomen, forcing to bend double.
P Menses only at night, or MORE at NIGHT.
• “Menses flow only in absence of pain.” [Kent]
[1] Wright Hubbard, Mental portraits of remedies familiar and unfamiliar; BHJ, April 1960. [2] Healthnotes Online; website. [3] Merck Manual. [4] Agus, Hypomagnesemia; University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; website.
Rubrics
Mind
Ailments from deceived friendship [1]; mental symptoms from injuries, accidents [1]. Anguish > after going to bed [1; Cham.]. Anxiety, > evening in bed [2; Am-c.], while eating warm food [1/1]. Fear, something will happen, > warmth of bed [1]. Cannot support injustice [1]. Irritability from grief [1]. Kleptomania, steals dainties [1]. Mental symptoms < during menses [1]. Restlessness, driving out of bed [1], while sitting [1]. Striking himself, knocking his head against wall and things [1]. Walking in open air > mental symptoms [2].
Vertigo
Alternating with colic [1]. Walking > [1].
Head
Itching of scalp during wet weather [2/1]. Pain, occiput, as if screwed together [1]; pressing, forehead, in crowded room [2; Plat.].
Ear
Pain, > eating [1/1].
Hearing
Impaired, after fright [1/1], > noise [1], sudden [2].
Nose
Odours, of manure [1].
Face
Pain, from change of temperature [1], > walking in open air [2].
Mouth
Taste, insipid during menses [1/1], sour during pregnancy [2].
Teeth
Pain, > motion [2], > salt [1/1].
Throat
Choking sensation as if throat were distended [1/1].
Stomach
Appetite, diminished during menses [1]; increased before menses [1]. Eructations, sour, during menses [2/1]. Thirst, before menses [1].
Rectum
Diarrhoea from artificial food [1].
Female
Menses, more at night [3], copious at night [3], > motion [2], flow only after the pain [2/1], cease while walking [1].
Limbs
Coldness, feet, during excitement [1; Crat.]. Aversion to cover hands [1/1]. Restlessness, legs, at night, must put them out of bed to cool them [1]. Swelling, fingers, while constipated [1/1].
Sleep
Frequent waking during menses [1/1].
Dreams
Disease, hair falling out [1/1]. Being thrown into a grave [1/1]. Lost in a forest [1], at home [1]. Money [1]. Fighting with robbers [1]. Being thirsty [1].
Food
Aversion: [2]: Artichokes; salads; vegetables. [1]: Bread; bread and butter; butter; cooked food; green fruit; green things; meat; mutton; milk; warm food.
Desire: [2]: Bread; bread and butter; fruit; meat; sour; strange things during pregnancy. [1]: Butter; coffee [*]; cold drinks; delicacies; dry bread [*]; juicy things; milk; pungent [*]; sweets [*]; vegetables.
Worse: [2]: Cabbage; milk; warm food. [1]: Coffee; cold drinks; farinaceous; fat; fruit; hot food; meat [= dryness of skin, and heat*]; sweets [*].
Better: [1]: Coffee; cold food; hot food; pork; salt; warm soup [> colic].
* Repertory additions [Mezger].

Dr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo)
International Homeopathic Consultant at Ushahomeopathy
I am a Homeopathic Physician. I am practicing Homeopathy since 20 years. I treat all kinds of Chronic and Acute complaints with Homeopathic Medicines. Even Emergency conditions can be treated with Homeopathy if case is properly managed. know more about me and my research on my blog https://www.homeoresearch.com/about-me/
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-Mohanthy.N

Carbonate of magnesia mgco3′ 3 H2O
Introduction
Magnesia carbonica was used in ancient days in the form of Gregory’s powder.
Other constituents being Rhubarb and Ginger.
This powder is used to sweeten the stomach.
Properties of Mag. Carb., from old school’s point are “laxative Antacid and Antilithic”.

Causations
1. Dentition (See-Hell.)
2. Milk.
3. Mental distress
4. Shocks and blows
Constitution

1. General appearance :
It is especially suited to women having broken down or worn out constitution with uterine and climacteric disorders and with lax fibres and sour smell of the whole body.
2. Temperament :
Nervous temperament.

3. Miasm :
Psora is the background.

Mental Generals
1. Anxious
2. Sad mood
3. Changeable (Ign., Lyc., Nux. m., Puls., Sars., Zinc.).
Physical generals
1. Reaction to heat and cold :
Very much sensitive to cold air.
2. Aversion :
Food, warm food, vegetables (Hell.).
3. Desires :
Bread, and butter, cold drinks, meat, sour acids etc.
4. Sweat :
Morning, 1 p.m. during anxiety, on going to sleep, yellow staining, difficult to wash off.
5. Sleep :
Sleepiness in day.
6. Dreams :
Anger, anxious (during menses dancing, of the dead, fire, frightful, historic, of being obliged to dress hair in company, journey, falling of hair, of misfortune, of being soaked in rain, robbers, water.
7. Appetite :
Inordinate.
8. Thirst :
Violent in the morning and evening.
9. General modalities :
(a) Aggravations : Change of temperature, every three weeks, rest, milk, during menses.
(b) Ameliorations :
Warm air, but worse by warmth of bed (Led., Merc., better by warmth of bed, Ars.).

Guiding symptoms
1. Spasmodic affection of stomach and intestines. (Col. Mag., Ph.), increased secretion from mucous membranes.
2. Diarrhoea : Preceded by cutting, doubling up colic, regularly, every three weeks, stools green, frothy, like scum of a frog pond.
White, tallow like masses are found floating in stool, the milk passes undigested in nursing children.
3. When crude magnesia has been taken to “sweeten the stomach,” and if the symptoms correspond, the potentised remedies will often relieve.
4. Heart burn : Sour, belching, eructaction, and vomiting of pregnancy.
5. Pains : neuralgic, lightening like, agg. on left side (Col.), insupportable during repose, most get up and walk (Rhus.), tooth ache during pregnancy. agg. at night.
6. Menses : Preceded by sore throat (Lac. c.) labour like pain, cutting colic, backache, weakness, chilliness, flows only at night or when lying down, ceases when walking (Am. m., Kreos., reverse of Lil.) acrid, dark, pitch like, difficult to wash off (Med.).
7. Pain on vertex as if the hair were pulled (Kali. m., Phos.).
8. Unrefreshing sleep, more tired on rising than when retiring (Bry. alb., Con., Hep. sulph., Op., Sulph.).
9. The whole body feels tired and painful especially the legs and feet, aching, restless.
Patients

Magnesia carb. lady :
Having broken down or worn out constitution with uterine and climacteric disorders and with lax fibres and sour smell of the whole body.
The lady is very much sensitive to cold air, very sensitive mentally.
The patient is very nervous, sad, despondent and morose.
Whe is very absent minded and sensitive to noise, slight noise irritates her.
A lady suffers from toothache during pregnancy.
She also suffers from G. I. tract troubles like acidity, flatulence and dyspepsia especially in right iliac region.
There may be also vomiting of bitter water.
There is pain in the stomach after eating.
The patient has inordinate craving for meat, acid and aversion to milk.
The lady suffers from diarrhoea every three weeks.
The stool is green, watery, frothy, like a frog pond scum.
The stool is very much sour smelling with tenesmus.
Stool is aggravated from taking milk.
The magnesia carb lady suffers from dysmenorrhoea which is too late, scanty, very much acrid, dark, pitch like, very difficult to wash off.
There is sore throat with coryza and nasal obstruction before mense.
Flow only at night during sleep or when lying down.
The patient also suffers from intense neuralgia of left sided shooting like lightening, worse from touch, draught, change of temperature.
She cannot stay in the bed, must walk on the floor.
Her all the symptoms especially pains agg. from rest and relieved by walking.

G. I. Tract complaints :
The patient suffers from acidity, flatulence and dyspepsia.
There is pain in the right iliac region with heaviness and rumbling and gurgling in abdomen.
There is heart burn with sour belching and eructation.
There may also be vomiting of bitter water.
There is pain in stomach after eating, much flatulence, craving for meat, acid and fruits and aversion to milk.
They suffer from diarrhoea every three weeks.
The stool is green, watery, frothy, like a scum of frog pond, white, very much sour smelling with great tenesmus.
Diarrhoea is preceded by severe cutting, doubling up colic, symptoms are aggravated after taking milk.
Relationship
Mag. carb.
1. Left side predom. Inclination for open air.
2. Haemorrhoages, blood dark colour, neither apoplexy nor paralysis.
3. Heat or sweat with aversion to uncover.
Calc. carb.
1. Right side. Aversion to open air.
2. Haemorrhages, blood light red, apoplexy, paralysis.
3. Heat or sweat, with inclination to uncover.
1. Comparison :
Ant. carb. : Headache from smoking.
Calc. carb. : Rheum : Sour smelling stool.
Nux. vom. : Sour breath
Cocculus, Sep. : agg. From kneeling.
Ip. : Nausea and grass green stool.
Coloc. : Griping pain with drawing up of legs.
Cham. : Neuralgic.
Calc. carb. : Sour stool, intolerance of milk, imperfect nourishment.
Ratan. : Toothache of pregnant women.
Sang. : Rheumatism.
Lyco., Sil., Nit. ac., Lac. can., Lac. def. : Intolerance of milk.
Am. mur. : Menses agg. at night.
Graph. : Coryza during menses.
2. Complementary : Cham.
3. It antidotes : Acet. acid.
4. Antidoted by : Ars. alb., and Cham.
In Neuralgia : Merc. sol., Nux. v., Puls. and Rheum. : Abdominal troubles.

Thermal cleavage
Generals :
Eating warm food causes anxiousness and warmth throughout whole body.
Aversion to uncovering.
Amel. : Open air.
Particulars :
Cold agg.
Facial neuralgia. Toothache.
Heat amel.
Anxiety
Heat agg.
Toothache
Cold amel.
Toothache (for short time)

Prover : Hahnemann.

Pharmacy
Carbonate of magnesia is a white mass having a slight earthy taste.
It is not soluble in water.
It dissolves in dilute sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and other acids.
It is prepared by precipitation of magnesium salts with sodium carbonate.

Preparation :
It is made by trituration as directed under Class VII.
Physiological action
It produces gastro intestinal catarrh with marked hyper acidity and sour diarrhoea.
It also causes nervous exhaustion and sleeplessness.
Therapeutics
Acidity, Catarrh, Constipation, Cough, Diarrhoea, Dyspepsia, Flatulence, Menstrual disorders, Neuralgia, Nausea of pregnancy, Toothache etc.

Potencies
(a) 3rd to 30th potency (B).
(b) Clarke repeated the 200th potency 3 or 4 times a day for state of nervousness and is said to have got untold good from it.

Dr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo)
International Homeopathic Consultant at Ushahomeopathy
I am a Homeopathic Physician. I am practicing Homeopathy since 20 years. I treat all kinds of Chronic and Acute complaints with Homeopathic Medicines. Even Emergency conditions can be treated with Homeopathy if case is properly managed. know more about me and my research on my blog https://www.homeoresearch.com/about-me/
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