I used to hang out by the food table at parties because you don’t really have to talk to anybody, and if you do, you can talk about the food.
[Jennifer Jason Leigh]
Graphite. Plumbago. Mineral carbon.
CLASSIFICATION Graphite is a crystalline form of carbon and is found as a naturally occurring mineral in many locations worldwide. Carbon was the first [chemical] element to be discovered. It is a non-metallic element in group 14 [formerly 4A] of the periodic table, along with silicium, germanium, tin, and lead. Most graphite is produced through the metamorphosis of organic material in rocks. Even coal is occasionally metamorphosed into graphite. Some graphite is found in igneous rocks and also as nodules inside iron meteorites. Although graphite is a rather common mineral, good quality crystals of it are rare. Graphite is considered an important constituent of carbonaceous dust detected in the interstellar medium. Graphite is obtained by mining; notable occurrences include New York and Texas, USA; Canada; Russia; Czech Republic; Mexico; Greenland; South Korea; India and Sri Lanka.
STRUCTURE The structure of [crystalline] graphite is a staggered stacking of flat layers of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb like structure. Individual layers, sometimes referred to as ‘graphene’ sheets, are weakly bonded to the sheets above and below. However, the bonding between carbon atoms within the layers is strong. Unlike graphite, the strong bonding between carbon atoms in diamond is not confined to layers, rather, the bonds in diamond are pointed toward the vertices of a regular tetrahedron. Diamond is a framework structure where the carbon atoms are bonded to other carbon atoms in three dimensions as opposed to two in graphite.
DIAMOND The difference in the bonding, despite having only carbon atoms, results in a profound difference in the properties of graphite and diamond. Graphite is one of the softest minerals, diamond is the hardest. Graphite is opaque and black while pure diamond is transparent and colourless. Graphite’s lustre is metallic while that of diamond is adamantine. Graphite is a conductor while diamond is an insulator or semiconductor. Graphite is a very good lubricant, diamond is the ultimate abrasive. Graphite is the stable form of carbon. All diamonds at or near the surface of the Earth are currently undergoing a transformation into graphite, although this reaction is extremely slow.
FORMS Amorphous Graphite is generally found in beds or seams consisting entirely of graphite. These seams are formed by the metamorphism of coal or carbon rich sediments near magmatic intrusives. Amorphous graphites have a soft black sheen contrasting with the metallic lustre of crystalline vein graphite. The term, Amorphous, is actually a misnomer as all graphites are crystalline in structure. However, those of amorphous graphite are not well defined and are microscopic. Carbon contents range from 60% to 85% in commercially available grades. Flake Graphite consists of flat, platelike particles found in metamorphous rocks such as marble, gneiss and quartz-mica schist. Each flake is separate, having crystallized as such in rock. Flake ore must be crushed and the graphite separated from the gangue. Floatation cells are the most common method. Carbon content ranges from 60% to 96%. Artificial Graphite is man made graphite as opposed to natural graphite as described above. It is usually manufactured by using petroleum or other carbon by-products, bonded into shapes with a carburizing binder and graphitized by high temperature and electrical energy. While more abrasive than natural graphites, its high purity makes it an excellent material for metallurgical and certain chemical applications. 1
PROPERTIES Graphite melts at about 3650o C and vaporises at about 4500o C. At 650-750o C it slowly decomposes in the presence of oxygen to form carbon dioxide. It has three specific properties: good electrical conductivity [only non-metal having this], lubricity, and inertness.
USES Graphite is used in a wide variety of industries where its particular properties are important. Such uses include: pencil leads; friction materials such as brake pads, brake linings, and clutch facings; lubricants: oils, greases, colloidal suspensions; coatings; batteries; sealing materials; fillers to impart lubricating properties to rubber; electrically conductive printing inks; for matches and explosives, commutator brushes, anodes, arc-lamp carbons, electroplating; polishing compounds, rust and needle-paper; coating for cathode ray tubes; moderator in nuclear piles; high-strength composites in helicopter blades, tennis rackets, golf club shafts, artificial heart valves, and lubricants.
PROVINGS •• [1] Hahnemann – 5 provers; method: unknown.
•• [2] Piper – self-experimentation; method: repeated doses, comprising 1/12 to 20 grains of pure graphite, for 18 days.
•• [3] Schoeler – 12 provers, 1937-1938; method: repeated doses of low potencies.
Hahnemann employed for the proving “a grain of the purest plumbago from an English lead pencil of the best quality.” According to Leeser, English graphite contains 96% carbon and 4% iron. Hahnemann says that the first thought of the medicinal use of graphite was given by Dr. Weinhold who, while on a journey in Italy, saw workers in a mirror factory in Venice use it externally for expulsion of herpes. Weinhold imitated them and “prescribed its external application either with saliva or with some fat, or he rubbed in the ointment, or applied a plaster of plumbago. He also administered it in several cases internally, as a confection or in pills, not without success. We go somewhat further, and administer graphites as a very serviceable antipsoric remedy, and this, whether herpes be present in the [non-venereal] chronic disease or not.”
[1] Cummings-Moore Graphite.
NUTRITION. Circulation. SKIN [folds; behind ears; angles; flexures; orifices; nails]. Mucous membranes. Glands. Eyes. * LEFT SIDE.
Worse: COLD. Drafts. Light. During menses. Suppressions. Empty swallowing. Fats. Hot drinks. Warmth of bed. Scratching. Before midnight. Physical exertion. Wet feet. Music.
Better: Open air; after walking in. Eating. Touch. Dark. Wrapping up. Hot milk. Riding in a carriage. Noise. Eructations.
Main symptoms
M IRRESOLUTION, timidity, lack of self-confidence; full of DOUBTS.
• “Though usually quick to decide, she, soon after taking the medicine, becomes slow of recollection and resolution.” [Hahnemann]
• “I could have been a diamond. This substance has effectively the same chemical formula as diamond, but life’s circumstances have caused it to remain ‘black and friable.’ Will Graphites, like the ugly duckling, be able to complete its metamorphosis and take to the skies?” [Grandgeorge]
• “Graphites men are often painfully shy. They have, on the whole, a much harder time in childhood than Graphites girls, and hence they often grow up to be withdrawn and lacking in confidence. It is not unusual for a Graphites boy to be overfed by his concerned mother, who seeks to give him comfort through food. As a result, many Graphites men are obese, and this further adds to their lack of self-esteem. Typically, the young Graphites man is very nervous around the opposite sex, and may have great difficulty in overcoming his shyness sufficiently to form a romantic relationship.” [Bailey]
M Incapacity to think abstract thoughts, analyse and plan.
• “Regards himself as unlucky and ill-used.” [Gibson]
Resulting in ANXIETY [anxiety, morning, on waking], EXCITABILITY, sadness and even despair.
M Fastidious; fidgety; conscientious about trifles.
• “Extreme scrupulousness; she cannot take anything lightly.” [Hahnemann]
M WEEPING and expressing emotions >.
Has to ventilate them.
• “The excitability from trifles is markedly ameliorated from weeping. Weeping is an expression and the Graphites patient is much better from expressing her emotions. Graphites is excited, anxious, apprehensive, sad, despairing and despondent; but the moment she expresses her emotions, she becomes calm and relaxed. She can hardly keep anything to herself: her doubts, fears, loves and hates; they have to be expressed or conveyed. It is like a tuning fork that vibrates from a slight jerk and rests only when this vibration is transmitted to something else.” [Sankaran]
• “The carbon element appears to resonate with a down-to-earth kind of personality, and we can see in each of the carbon-containing remedies, particularly Calcarea carbonica and Natrum carbonicum, a simple, matter of fact approach of life, uncomplicated by the intellectual pretensions of more sophisticated types, and yet level-headed in comparison with more emotional types like Pulsatilla and Ignatia. For this reason Graphites people have a kind of innocence. They are uncomplicated without being stupid, much as Calcarea people are. They tend to say what they think, and to be straightforward and free from guile, unlike Natrum muriaticum, Sepia and Ignatia, whose subtle minds can deliberately manipulate others for their own purposes. Graphites differs from Calcarea in being more emotional and a little more introspective and shy. Her shyness [the vast majority of Graphites people are female] and her softness resembles that of Pulsatilla at first glance, but she is generally a deeper, more subtle person than Pulsatilla. Once Pulsatilla knows you, she is generally extroverted and very playful. Graphites, on the other hand, remains a relatively quiet person even in familiar company.” [Bailey]
M Care / family.
• “As a result of their warm heart, allied to a sensible mind, Graphites women are often to be found in the caring professions. … Both types often have an artistic streak, and yet like Calcarea they will seldom abandon their first love – home life – to make their ways as artists commercially. Graphites is a very feminine type, who seldom puts her ego or her intellect before her heart. Family life is generally her first love, the bedrock of her life, and she usually makes a natural and loving parent. It is when she has difficulties in her close relationships that Graphites suffers most. She is usually very dependent upon a few close relationships, and when these are absent or become stressed she will suffer greatly, as will Pulsatilla. … Quite a common fear amongst Graphites people is fear of losing their loved ones. Graphites people develop deep attachments to family and friends, and they are usually very aware of their dependence upon them. This can give rise to a nagging fear of ‘what would I do if so and so died? How would I cope?'” [Bailey]
M Children.
• “Graphites children can be rather a nuisance. Obese, florid, with seborrhoeic scalp and eyelids, they are not the least awed by the importance of the occasion, but prowl around and man-handle the doctors, the instruments, etc., ignoring or laughing at the mother’s admonitions.”1
G CHILLY, can be warm.
• “The Graphites subject is extremely chilly and sensitive to the least draught of cold air, but also averse to great heat and feels oppressed in a hot stuffy atmosphere. Craves air, like Carb-v. and Puls. Feels cold both indoors and in the open, and desires to be warmly clad. The face may be flushed and hot, with at the same time icy cold hands and feet.” [Gibson]
G < COLD in general. < Becoming cold. < Entering a cold place. G < WARM room. Sensation of HEAT on waking. G < HUNGER. Nibbling appetite; has to take frequently small bites of food to ease stomach. • “The appetite is often ravenous with a constant urge to eat, for a feeling of ease rather than from genuine hunger. There is desire for beer, acid drinks and cold fluids – which may disagree. There is distaste for sweets, meat, salt, fish, cooked foods. Fat cannot be taken with impunity; sweets may cause nausea.” [Gibson] G Strong aversion to coition [in both sexes]. G Pains SHIFT to part LAIN on [2]. G OBESITY. • “May also emaciate as with cancer, peptic ulcer.” [Morrison] • “Emaciation of affected part.” [Boger] • “A fat, pasty habitus is more characteristic because in general Graphites shows a greater depression of dissimilation and in approximation to charcoal more stasis in the venous circulation in comparison to Silicea.” [Leeser] G LUMPY, THICK or HARD. [skin, glands, eyelids, nails, scars, callosities, stool crusts, etc. – Boger.] G EXCORIATIONS, CRACKS or FISSURES. [in angles, of eyes, nostrils, mouth, fingertips, nipples, anus, etc. – Boger.] G Sensation of burning, numbness or deadness. Brain feels numb [weakness of short-term memory]. P PHOTOPHOBIA, and copious lachrymation. P Pains stomach > eating and HOT MILK.
P Unhealthy skin; every injury suppurates.
• “Most characteristic in Graphites is the persistent dryness of the skin and lack of moisture, tendency to rhagades and unhealthiness of the skin. Outside of fissured dry eczema moist crusted eruptions also appear with preference on the flexors of the extremities or behind the ears, moreover on the sites of transition from skin to mucous membranes and the vicinity of the genitals. The secretion should be honey-like, coagulated, acrid and offensive; the itching is worse from heat and the warmth of the bed.” [Leeser]
• “In infants, we often find Leiner’s disease, with an extensive red eruption [erythema] on the buttocks and greasy cradle cap on the scalp. This affection which is very difficult to treat in conventional medicine disappears in several days with a few globules of Graphites 9CH morning and evening. In addition, the child has difficulty burping [Arg-n., Con., Nux-v.] and is constipated.” [Grandgeorge]
[1] Douglas Ross, Spotting the Remedy; Homoeopathy, November 1968.
Anxiety, in morning on waking [3], > warmth [2], > weeping [1]. Despair over trifles [2]. Discouraged on waking [2]. Dulness, after eating [1]. Excitement, from music [2], while talking [1]. Fear, of suffocation, > eating [2/1]; > weeping [3]. Indifference to the dictates of his conscience [1]. Insolence, laughing at reproof [1/1]. Irresolution about trifles [1]. Laughing at reprimands [1]. Mannish women [1]. Restlessness while sitting at work [3]. Sadness about trifles [2]. Weeping, from music [3], on hearing organ music [3/1].
Empty sensation, after eating [1]. Pain, > riding in a carriage [1], > exposure to sun [1]. Perspiration, scalp, on falling asleep [1], after washing [3/1].
Lachrymation, from sunlight [1]. Photophobia, after coition [2].
Dim, during menses [2]. Diplopia, when reading [2]. Flickering, around outside the range of vision [2/1]. Lost, by light [2], during menses [2].
Noises, during coition [1/1], while eating [2], on motion of the head [2], on sneezing [1], when stooping [2]; like an explosion [1]; sounds of guns, when swallowing [1/1]; snapping, after every eructation [2]. Sensation of opening and closing like a valve [2]. Stopped sensation, at full moon [1/1].
Impaired, > noise [3]. > riding in a carriage [2].
Smell, acute, sensitive to odour of flowers [3].
Coldness, after eating [1]. Nausea, at thought of food eaten [1], < motion of eyes [1], < thinking of it [1]. Pain, > lying [2], after boiled meat [2/1], > warm milk [2], from sweets [3], > warmth of bed [1]; burning, > eating [2].
Knotty, lumpy, united by threads of mucus [3].
Voice, cracked, when singing [2/1]; lost, during menses [1].
Difficult, > eating [2].
Nails, brittle fingernails [3]; distorted toenails [3]; thick fingernails [3].
Sleeplessness, always the same thought [2].
Accidents [3]. Danger, from water [2]. Embarrassment [1].
Profuse, during menses [2]. When talking [1].
Obesity, during menopause [3]. Pain, wandering suddenly, < touch [1/1]. Weakness, during coryza [1; Calc.]. Food Aversion: [3]: Fish; meat; meat, thought of; salt; sweets; warm food. [2]: Cooked food; soup. [1]: Liquids. Desire: [2]: Beer; chicken; cold drinks. [1]: Bitter drinks; bitter food; juicy things; meat; milk, hot; warm drinks. Worse: [3]: Pork. [2]: Cold drinks; cold food; sweets; vinegar; warm drinks. [1]: Hot food. Better: [2]: Hot food; warm drinks. [1]: Wine.

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Dr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo)
International Homeopathic Consultant at Ushahomeopathy
I am a Homeopathic Physician. I am practicing Homeopathy since 20 years. I treat all kinds of Chronic and Acute complaints with Homeopathic Medicines. Even Emergency conditions can be treated with Homeopathy if case is properly managed. know more about me and my research on my blog https://www.homeoresearch.com/about-me/
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