Natural history
 Florida museum of natural history’s guide to florida’s venomous snakes
 Florida Cottonmouth, Cottonmouth Moccasin, Water Moccasin, Moccasin.
 Scientific name: Agkistrodon piscivorous conanti.
 Description: Average adult size is 20-48 inches (51-121 cm), record is 74.5 inches (189 cm). A dark-colored, heavy-bodied snake. Juveniles are brightly colored with reddish-brown crossbands on a brown ground color. The dark crossbands contain many dark spots and speckles. The pattern darkens with age so adults retain only a hint of the former banding or are a uniform black. The eye is camouflaged by a broad, dark, facial stripe. The head is thick and distinctly broader than the neck, and when viewed from above, the eyes cannot be seen. The top of head in front of the eyes is covered with large plate-like scales. The pupil is vertical (catlike). There is a deep facial pit between the nostril and the eye. Young juvenile Cottonmouths have a sulfur-colored tail.
 Range: Found throughout Florida. The species extends north to Virginia and west to Illinois, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas.
 Habitat: Any wetlands or waterway in the state. Cottonmouths can be found along streams, springs, rivers, lakes, ponds, marshes, swamps, sloughs, reservoirs, retention pools, canals, and roadside ditches. It occasionally wanders far from water, and has been found in bushes and trees.
 Comments: Though the Cottonmouth occurs throughout the state, it is not as abundant as the many species of harmless water snakes that occur in much the same habitat. Many Florida residents do not even realize that water snakes exist. As a consequence, every large dark-colored snake found near water is counted, and usually killed, as a Cottonmouth. Cottonmouths can easily be distinguished from water snakes. If the head is viewed from above, the eyes of Cottonmouths cannot be seen while the eyes of water snakes are visible; Cottonmouths have elliptical pupils and water snakes have round pupils; Cottonmouths have a facial pit between the nostril and the eye, and water snakes have none. Some people believe Cottonmouths lie in wait on tree limbs overhanging water so they can drop into boats. These are usually cases of mistaken identity. The harmless brown water snake often basks on tree limbs over the water, and when frightened by a rapidly approaching boat, they will escape by throwing themselves off the limb and into the water. Occasionally their flight comes too late and they fall into the boat. Cottonmouths feed on fish, frogs, mice, rats, and other small mammals. When threatened, the Cottonmouth may respond by coiling its body and opening its mouth as though ready to bite. The exposed white interior of the mouth is what gave rise to the common name, Cottonmouth. If not hard pressed, the Cottonmouth usually will retreat. This open mouth threat display has led to the widespread belief that Cottonmouths are aggressive snakes. In fact, they are one of the more sedate, even placid, poisonous snakes. Cottonmouth bites can be quite dangerous. The victim should seek immediate medical care from a physician or hospital experienced in treating snakebite. Juvenile Cottonmouths hold the tail erect and wiggle its yellow tip like a caterpillar to attract prey within striking range.
 Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma
 Homoeopathic name and abbreviation: Toxicophis pugnax; Toxi.
 Common names: Cottonmouth or water moccasin
 Range: USA, from southern Alabama to southeastern Texas, northward to Oklahoma, Missouri, Illinois and Indiana.
 Authority: Troost, 1836
 Comments: Cottonmouth bear live young
 (T F Allen)
 Materia medica
 Allen’s enclyopedia
 For last eighteen years he had an annual recurrence of symptoms, attended with severe pain, but not accompanied with swelling; it occurred at precisely the same time of to year, continued several days, but decreasing in severity every succeeded year.
 Every year the systems have turned with less intensity and with an absence of swelling.
 Skin rather dry (after an hour).
 Right leg edematous, considerably larger than the left (after one hour).
 A few drops of a limpid fluid came from the wounds (after one hour).
 The leg became painful and swelled rapidly, the swelling extending to the hip, attended with high irritative fever (after half an hour).
 For several years the pains were confined to the knee of the limb bitten; in a few years it left the knee and sized the hip, and finally it attacked the shoulder, the last attack being very slight.
 Pulse accelerated, full, regular, easily compressible (after one hour).
 Countenance somewhat anxious (after one hour).
 Mocassin snake pain and fever recur annually, after bite from this snake, and sometimes change location with disappearance of first symptoms, An unusual dryness of skin follows the bite.  Oedematous swellings and periodical neuralgia.  Pain travels from one part to another.
 Complete repertory
 MIND; DEVELOPMENT, mental; arrested (11) *
 RECTUM; PAIN; pulsating (15) *
 GENERALITIES; DROPSY; external (213) *
 GENERALITIES; DROPSY; internal (200) *
 GENERALITIES; PULSE; full (215) *
 GENERALITIES; PULSE; soft (149) *
Dr.Devendra Kumar MD(Homeo)
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